Culture and the Trajectories of Developmental Pathology: Insights from Control and Information Theories

Regular Article
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Cognition in living entities—and their social groupings or institutional artifacts—is necessarily as complicated as their embedding environments, which, for humans, includes a particularly rich cultural milieu. The asymptotic limit theorems of information and control theories permit construction of a new class of empirical ‘regression-like’ statistical models for cognitive developmental processes, their dynamics, and modes of dysfunction. Such models may, as have their simpler analogs, prove useful in the study and re-mediation of cognitive failure at and across the scales and levels of organization that constitute and drive the phenomena of life. These new models particularly focus on the roles of sociocultural environment and stress, in a large sense, as both trigger for the failure of the regulation of bio-cognition and as ‘riverbanks’ determining the channels of pathology, with implications across life-course developmental trajectories. We examine the effects of an embedding cultural milieu and its socioeconomic implementations using the ‘lenses’ of metabolic optimization, control system theory, and an extension of symmetry-breaking appropriate to information systems. A central implication is that most, if not all, human developmental disorders are fundamentally culture-bound syndromes. This has deep implications for both individual treatment and public health policy.

Keywords

Cognition Culture Developmental trajectory Global broadcast Living state Statistical models 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author thanks Prof. R. Lewis-Fernandez for useful suggestions, and is particularly grateful to the editor and reviewers for their careful and helpful attention.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleby J, Mao X, Rodkina A (2008) Stabilization and destabilization of nonlinear differential equations by noise. IEEE Trans Autom Control 53:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atlan H, Cohen I (1998) Immune information, self-organization and meaning. Int Immunol 10:711–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baars B (1988) A cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey N (1975) The mathematical theory of infectious diseases and its applications, 2nd edn. Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Bebbington P (1993) Transcultural aspects of affective disorders. Int Rev Psychiatry 5:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-Sharchar D (2002) Mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia: a possible linkage to dopamine. J Neurochem 83:1241–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Black F, Scholes M (1973) The pricing of options and corporate liabilities. J Polit Econ 81:637–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown R (1987) From groups to groupoids: a brief survey. Bull Lond Math Soc 19:113–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clay H, Sullivan S, Konradi C (2011) Mitochondrial dysfunction and pathology in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Int J Dev Neurosci 29:311–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Compton W, Conway K, Stinson F, Colliver J, Grant B (2005) Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of DSM-IV antisocial personality syndromes and alcohol and specific drug disorders in the United States: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 66:677–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cover T, Thomas J (2006) Elements of information theory, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Craig T, Siegel C, Hopper K, Lin S, Sartorius N (1997) Outcome in schizophrenia and related disorders compared between developing and developed countries. A recursive partitioning re-analysis of the WHO DOSMD data. Br J Psychiatry 170:22933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Groot S, Mazur P (1984) Non-Equilib Thermodyn. Dover Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Dekel S, Solomon Z, Horesh D, Ein-Dor T (2014) Posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive sysmptoms: joined or independent sequelae of trauma? J Psychiatr Res 54:64–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dekel S, Ein-Dor T, Rosen J, Bonanno G (2017) Differences in cortisol response to trauma activation in individuals with and without comorbid PTSD and depression. Front Psychol.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00797 Google Scholar
  17. Feynman R (2000) Lectures in computation. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  18. Giulivi C, Zhang Y, Omanska-Klusek A, Ross-Inta C, Wong S, Hertz-Picciotto I, Tassone F, Pessah I (2010) Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism. J Am Med Assoc 304:2389–2395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Glazebrook JF, Wallace R (2009) Rate distortion manifolds as model spaces for cognitive information. Informatica 33:309–346Google Scholar
  20. Goh S, Dong Z, Zhang Y, DiMauro S, Peterson B (2014) Mitochondrial dysfunction as a neurobiological subtype of autism spectrum disorder. JAMA Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.179 Google Scholar
  21. Golubitsky M, Stewart I (2006) Nonlinear dynamics and networks: the groupoid formalism. Bull Am Math Soc 43:305–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grant B, Hasin D, Stinson F, Dawson D, Chou S, Ruan W, Pickering R (2004) Prevalence, correlates, and disability of personality disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 7:948–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hare R, Hart S, Harpur T (1991) Psychopathology and the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 100:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harrison G, Hopper K, Craig T et al (2001) Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15- and 25-year international follow-up study. Br J Psychiatry 178:50617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heine S (2001) Self as cultural product: an examination of East Asian and North American selves. J Personal 69:881–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heinrich R, Schuster S, Holzhutter HG (1991) Mathematical analysis of enzymatic reaction systems using optimization principles. Eur J Biochem 201:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hwang C, Masud A (1979) Multiple objective decision making. Methods and Applications. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hwu H, Yeh E, Chang L (1989) Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Taiwan defined by the Chinese diagnostic interview schedule. Acta Psychiatr Scand 79:136–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jablonsky A, Sartorius N, Ernberg G, Anker M (1992) Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures: a World Health Organization ten-country study. Psychol Med Monogr Suppl 20:197Google Scholar
  30. Jenkins J, Kleinman A, Good B (1990) Cross-cultural studies of depression. In: Becker J, Kleinman A (eds) Advances in mood disorders: theory and research. L. Erlbaum, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  31. Jin H, Xu Z, Zhou X (2008) A convex stochastic optimization problem arising from portfolio selection. Math Finance 18:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kessler R, McGonagle K, Zhao S, Nelson C, Hughes M, Eshleman S, Wittchen H, Kendler K (1994) Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Khinchin A (1957) Mathematical foundations of information theory. Dover Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Kleinman A (1991) Rethinking psychiatry: from cultural category to personal experience. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Kleinman A, Cohen A (1997) Psychiatry’s global challenge. Sci Am 276(3):86–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kleinman A, Good B (1985) Culture and depression: studies in the anthropology of cross-cultural psychiatry of affect and depression. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  37. Kohrt B, Rasmussen A, Kaiser B, Haroz E, Maharjan S, Mutamba B, de Jong J, Hinton D (2014) Cultural concepts of distress and psychiatric disordes: literature review and research recommendations for global mental health epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol 43:365–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lewis-Fernandez R, Kirmayer L, Guarnaccia P, Ruiz P (2017) Cultural concepts of distress and assessment. Chapter 29. In: Sadock BJ et al (eds) Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry, vol II, 10th edn. Kulwer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Manson S (1995) Culture and major depression: current challenges in the diagnosis of mood disorders. Psychiatr Clin N Am 18:487–501Google Scholar
  40. Mao X (2007) Stochastic differential equations and applications, 2nd edn. Woodhead Publishing, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  41. Markus H, Kitayama S (1991) Culture and self-implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychol Rev 98:224–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Matsuda T, Nisbett R (2006) Culture and change blindness. Cogn Sci Multidiscip J 30:381–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Matsumoto Y (2002) An introduction to morse theory. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RIGoogle Scholar
  44. Maturana H, Varela F (1980) Autopoiesis and cognition. Reidel, The NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nair G, Fagnani F, Zampieri S, Evans R (2007) Feedback control under data rate constraints: an overview. Proc IEEE 95:108–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nisbett R, Miyamoto Y (2005) The influence of culture: holistic versus analytic perception. Trends Cogn Sci 10:467–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nisbett R, Peng K, Incheol C, Norenzayan A (2001) Culture and the system of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychol Rev 108:291–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oquendo M, Echavarra G, Galfalvy H, Grunebaum M, Burke A, Barrera A (2003) Lower cortisol levels in depressed patients with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:591–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Palmieri L, Persico A (2010) Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: cause or effect? Biochim Biophys Acta 1797:1130–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pettini M (2007) Geometry and topology in hamiltonian dynamics and statistical mechanics. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Prabakaran S, Swatton J, Ryan M, Huffaker S, Huang J, Griffin J, Wayland M et al (2004) Mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia: evidence for compromised brain metabolism and oxidative stress. Mol Psychiatry 9:6840697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Protter P (1990) Stochastic integration and differential equations. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rossignol R, Frye R (2010) Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a ssytematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 17:290–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sartorius N, Shapiro R, Kimura M, Barrett K (1972) WHO international pilot study of schizophrenia. Psychol Med 2:42225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sartorius N, Jablensky A, Shapiro R (1977) Two-year follow-up of the patients included in the WHO international pilot study of schizophrenia. Psychol Med 7:52941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Scaglia F (2010) The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disease. Dev Disabil Res Rev 16:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schrodinger E (1989) Statistical thermodynamics. Dover Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Shannon C (1959) Coding theorems for a discrete source with a fidelity criterion. Inst Radio Eng Int Conv Rec 7:142–163Google Scholar
  59. Shao L, Martin M, Watson S, Schatzberg A, Akil H, Myers R, Jones E, Bunney W, Vawter M (2008) Mitochondrial involvement in psychiatric disorders. Trends Mol Med 40:281–295Google Scholar
  60. Silverstein S, Wibral M, Phillips W (2017) Implications of information theory for computational modeling of schizophrenia. Comput Psychiatry 1:82–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wallace R (2005) Consciousness: a mathematical treatment of the global neuronal workspace model. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Wallace R (2007) Culture and inattentional blindness. J Theor Biol 245:378–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wallace R (2012) Consciousness, crosstalk, and the mereological fallacy: an evolutionary perspective. Phys Life Rev 9:426–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wallace R (2015a) Closed-system ‘economic’ models for psychiatric disorders: western atomism and its culture-bound syndromes. Cogn Process 16:279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wallace R (2015b) An information approach to mitochondrial dysfunction: extending Swerdlow’s hypothesis. World Scientific, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wallace R (2016) High metabolic demand in neural tissues: information and control theory perspectives on the synergism between rate and stability. J Theor Biol 409:86–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wallace R (2017) Information theory models of instabilities in critical systems. World Scientific, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  68. Wallace R (2018) New statistical models of nonergodic cognitive systems and their pathologies. J Theor Biol 436:72–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wallace D, Wallace R (2000) Life and death in Upper Manhattan and the Bronx: toward evolutionary perspectives on catastrophic social change. Environ Plan A 32:1245–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wallace R, Wallace D (2016) Gene expression and its discontents: the social production of chronic disease, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wallace R, Wallace D, Wallace RG (2009) Farming human pathogens: ecological resilience and evolutionary process. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Weinstein A (1996) Groupoids: unifying internal and external symmetry. Not Am Math Assoc 43:744–752Google Scholar
  73. Weissman M, Bland R, Canino G, Greenwald S et al (1994) The cross-national epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 55(3):5–10Google Scholar
  74. Wolpert D, MacReady W (1995) No free lunch theorems for search. Santa Fe Institute, SFI-TR-02-010Google Scholar
  75. Wolpert D, MacReady W (1997) No free lunches. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 9:731–735Google Scholar
  76. World Health Organization (1981) Schizophrenia: an international follow-up study. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of EpidemiologyThe New York State Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations