Acta Applicandae Mathematicae

, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 955–972 | Cite as

Bipotentials for Non-monotone Multivalued Operators: Fundamental Results and Applications

  • Marius Buliga
  • Géry de Saxcé
  • Claude Vallée


This is a survey of recent results about bipotentials representing multivalued operators. The notion of bipotential is based on an extension of Fenchel’s inequality, with several interesting applications related to non-associated constitutive laws in non-smooth mechanics, such as Coulomb frictional contact or non-associated Drücker-Prager model in plasticity.

Relations between bipotentials and Fitzpatrick functions are described. Selfdual Lagrangians, introduced and studied by Ghoussoub, can be seen as bipotentials representing maximal monotone operators. We show that bipotentials can represent some monotone but not maximal operators, as well as non-monotone operators.

Further we describe results concerning the construction of a bipotential which represents a given non-monotone operator, by using convex Lagrangian covers or bipotential convex covers. At the end we prove a new reconstruction theorem for a bipotential from a convex Lagrangian cover, this time using a convexity notion related to a minimax theorem of Fan.


Bipotentials Non-monotone multivalued operators Implicit normality rules 

Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)

49J53 49J52 26B25 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marius Buliga
    • 1
  • Géry de Saxcé
    • 2
  • Claude Vallée
    • 3
  1. 1.“Simion Stoilow” Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian AcademyBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107Université des Sciences et Technologies de LilleVilleneuve d’Ascq cedexFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, UMR 6610UFR SFA-SP2MIFuturoscope-Chasseneuil cedexFrance

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