Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 46, Issue 11, pp 1830–1843 | Cite as

Trunk Hybrid Passive–Active Musculoskeletal Modeling to Determine the Detailed T12–S1 Response Under In Vivo Loads

  • P. Khoddam-Khorasani
  • N. ArjmandEmail author
  • A. Shirazi-Adl


Biomechanical models of the spine either simplify intervertebral joints (using spherical joints or deformable beams) in musculoskeletal (MS) or overlook musculature in geometrically-detailed passive finite element (FE) models. These distinct active and passive models therefore fail to determine in vivo stresses and strains within and load-sharing among the joint structures (discs, ligaments, and facets). A novel hybrid active–passive spine model is therefore developed in which estimated trunk muscle forces from a MS model for in vivo activities drive a mechanically-equivalent passive FE model to quantify in vivo T12–S1 compression/shear loads, intradiscal pressures (IDP), centers of rotation (CoR), ligament/facet forces, and annulus fiber strains. The predicted and in vivo L4–L5 IDP and L1–S1 CoRs showed satisfactory agreements. The FE model under commonly-used in vitro loading (pure moments and follower loads) predicted different kinetics from those of the hybrid model under in vivo loads (muscle exertions and gravity loads) contributing to suggest the inadequacy of such in vitro loads when simulating in vivo tasks. For an improved assessment of the injury risk, evaluation of the internal loads, and design of implants, such hybrid models should therefore be used.


Spine Finite element Musculoskeletal Model Disc fiber strain Center of rotation Intradiscal pressure Muscles Facets Ligaments 



This work was supported by grants from Sharif University of Technology (Tehran, Iran). Assistance of Mr. H. Asadi and Dr. S. Naserkhaki in the finite element modeling and Mr. A.H. Eskandari in the musculoskeletal modeling is greatly appreciated.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 32 kb)


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© Biomedical Engineering Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Division of Applied Mechanics, Department of Mechanical EngineeringÉcole PolytechniqueMontrealCanada

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