Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 46, Issue 8, pp 1091–1100 | Cite as

Tissue Identification in a Porcine Model by Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry Analysis of Surgical Smoke

  • Anton KontunenEmail author
  • Markus Karjalainen
  • Jukka Lekkala
  • Antti Roine
  • Niku Oksala


Electrosurgery is widely used in various surgical operations. When tissue is cut with high-frequency current, the cell contents at the incision area evaporate and together with water and possible soot particles, form surgical smoke. The smoke contains cell metabolites, and therefore, possible biomarkers for cancer or bacterial infection. Thus, the analysis of surgical smoke could be used in intraoperative medical diagnostics. We present a method that can be used to detect the characteristics of various tissue types by means of differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of surgical smoke. We used our method to test tissue identification with ten different porcine tissues. We classified the DMS responses with cross-validated linear discriminant analysis models. The classification accuracy in a measurement set with ten tissue types was 95%. The presented tissue identification by DMS analysis of surgical smoke is a proof-of-concept, which opens the possibility to research the method in diagnosing human tissues and diseases in the future.


FAIMS Electrosurgery LDA VOC 



Differential ion mobility spectrometry


High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry


Linear discriminant analysis


Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry


Mass spectrometry


Leave-one-out cross-validation


Automatic tissue analysis system


Voltage amplitude of the asymmetric waveform


Voltage of the DC compensation field


Volatile organic compound



This study was supported by grants from the following foundations: Finnish Cultural Foundation, South Savo Regional fund, Finnish Foundation for Technology Promotion (TES), Tampereen Tuberkuloosisäätiö (Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation), Emil Aaltonen foundation and Pirkanmaan sairaanhoitopiiri (PSHP) Grants 9s045, 151B03, 9T044, 9U042 and 150618. The study material used in the research was slaughterhouse offal. Ethical approval from the Ethics Committee of the Tampere Region was not needed for conducting this research, as confirmed from the committee itself. Authors Markus Karjalainen, Antti Roine, Niku Oksala, and Jukka Lekkala are shareholders of Olfactomics Ltd (, a company developing applications for eNose technology. The authors would like to thank D.Sc. Ville Rantanen, D.Sc. Pekka Kumpulainen, and Assistant Professor Antti Vehkaoja for their comments and contributions to the final manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BioMediTech Institute and Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and EngineeringTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryHatanpää HospitalTampereFinland
  3. 3.Division of Vascular SurgeryTampere University HospitalTampereFinland
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine and Life SciencesUniversity of TampereTampereFinland
  5. 5.Finnish Cardiovascular Research CenterTampereFinland

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