The Development of a Four-Electrode Bio-Impedance Sensor for Identification and Localization of Deep Pulmonary Nodules
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Identifying and localizing of deep pulmonary nodules are among the main challenges that thoracic surgeons face during operations, particularly in thoracoscopic procedures. To facilitate this, we have tried to introduce a non-invasive and safe method by measuring the lung electrical bio-impedance spectrum with a four-electrode array sensor. To study the feasibility of this method, since any change in the depth or diameter of the nodule in the lung tissue is not practical, we used the finite element modeling of the lung tissue and pulmonary nodule to allow changes in the depth and diameter of the nodule, as well as the distance in between the injection electrodes. Accordingly, a bio-impedance sensor was designed and fabricated. By measuring the electrical impedance spectrum of pulmonary tissues in four different specimens with a frequency band of 50 kHz to 5 MHz, 4 pulmonary nodules at four different depths were identified. The obtained bio-impedance spectrum from the lung surface showed that the magnitude and phase of electrical bio-impedance of the tumoral tissue at each frequency is smaller than that of the healthy tissue. In addition, the frequency characteristic varies in the Nyquist curves for tumoral and healthy lung tissues.
KeywordsPulmonary nodule Minimally invasive surgery Thoracoscopic surgery Electrical bio-impedance sensor Frequency characteristic
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