Effect of Tissue Material Properties in Blast Loading: Coupled Experimentation and Finite Element Simulation
- 395 Downloads
Computational models of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) require a robust definition of the material models of the brain. The mechanical constitutive models of these tissues are difficult to characterize, leading to a wide range of values reported in literature. Therefore, the sensitivity of the intracranial pressure (ICP) and maximum principal strain to variations in the material model of the brain was investigated through a combined computational and experimental approach. A finite element model of a rat was created to simulate a shock wave exposure, guided by the experimental measurements of rats subjected to shock loading conditions corresponding to that of mild traumatic brain injury in a field-validated shock tube. In the numerical model, the properties of the brain were parametrically varied. A comparison of the ICP measured at two locations revealed that experimental and simulated ICP were higher in the cerebellum (p < 0.0001), highlighting the significance of pressure sensor locations within the cranium. The ICP and strain were correlated with the long-term bulk (p < 0.0001) and shear moduli (p < 0.0001), with an 80 MPa effective bulk modulus value matching best with experimental measurements. In bTBI, the solution is sensitive to the brain material model, necessitating robust validation methods.
KeywordsShock wave Intracranial pressure Brain properties
This work was supported by Grant No. 14059001 (W81XWH-15-1-0303) under the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. Authors acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Saikat Pal with proof reading, Debrina Roy in model development, and Dr. Raj Gupta in theoretical discussions.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts to disclose.
- 1.Baumgartner, D., M. Lamy, R. Willinger, P. Choquet, C. Goetz, A. Constantinesco, and J. Davidsson. Finite element analysis of traumatic brain injuries mechanisms in the rat. In: IRCOBI Conference, 2009, pp. 97–108.Google Scholar
- 5.Chandra, N., S. Ganpule, N. N. Kleinschmit, R. Feng, A. D. Holmberg, A. Sundaramurthy, V. Selvan, and A. Alai. Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling. Shock Waves 22(5):403–415, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00193-012-0399-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Clemedson, C. J. Shock wave transmission to the central nervous system. Acta Physiol. Scand. 37(2–3):204–214, 1956. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1956.tb01356.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center. DoD Numbers for Traumatic Brain Injury. Silver Spring: Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, pp. 1–5, 2013.Google Scholar
- 23.Knutsen, A. K., E. Magrath, J. E. McEntee, F. Xing, J. L. Prince, P. V. Bayly, J. A. Butman, and D. L. Pham. Improved measurement of brain deformation during mild head acceleration using a novel tagged MRI sequence. J. Biomech. 47(14):3475–3481, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.09.010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 24.Kuriakose, M., M. Skotak, A. Misistia, S. Kahali, A. Sundaramurthy, and N. Chandra. Tailoring the blast exposure conditions in the shock tube for generating pure, primary shock waves: the end plate facilitates elimination of secondary loading of the specimen. PLoS ONE 11(9):e0161597, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Nyein, M. K., A. M. Jason, L. Yu, C. M. Pita, J. D. Joannopoulos, D. F. Moore, and R. A. Radovitzky. In silico investigation of intracranial blast mitigation with relevance to military traumatic brain injury. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107(48):20703–20708, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014786107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Przekwas, A., V. C. Chancey, X. G. Tan, Z. J. Chen, P. Wilkerson, A. Zhou, V. Harrand, C. Imielinska, and D. Reeves. Development of physics-based model and experimental validation of helmet performance in blast wave TBI. In: ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference (2009). https://doi.org/10.1115/sbc2009-206839.
- 34.Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H., A. Rezaei, M. Ziejewski, and G. Karami. CFD modeling of the underwash effect of military helmets as a possible mechanism for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. 20:16–26, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2016.1193597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Stalnaker, R. L. Mechanical Properties of the Head. Morgantown: West Virginia University, pp. 1–131, 1969.Google Scholar
- 37.Sundaramurthy, A., A. Alai, S. Ganpule, A. Holmberg, E. Plougonven, and N. Chandra. Blast-induced biomechanical loading of the rat: an experimental and anatomically accurate computational blast injury model. J. Neurotrauma 29(13):2352–2364, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2012.2413.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 44.Zhu, F., A. Kalra, T. Saif, Z. Yang, K. H. Yang, and A. I. King. Parametric analysis of the biomechanical response of head subjected to the primary blast loading—a data mining approach. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Engin. 19(10):1053–1059, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2015.1091887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Zhu, F., H. Mao, A. Dal Cengio Leonardi, C. Wagner, C. Chou, X. Jin, C. Bir, P. Vandevord, K. H. Yang, and A. I. King. Development of an FE model of the rat head subjected to air shock loading. Stapp Car Crash J. 54:211–225, 2010.Google Scholar