Advertisement

Modeling Human Volunteers in Multidirectional, Uni-axial Sled Tests Using a Finite Element Human Body Model

  • James P. Gaewsky
  • Derek A. Jones
  • Xin Ye
  • Bharath Koya
  • Kyle P. McNamara
  • F. Scott Gayzik
  • Ashley A. Weaver
  • Jacob B. Putnam
  • Jeffrey T. Somers
  • Joel D. Stitzel
Article
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

A goal of the Human Research Program at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to analyze and mitigate the risk of occupant injury due to dynamic loads. Experimental tests of human subjects and biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices provide valuable kinematic and kinetic data related to injury risk exposure. However, these experiments are expensive and time consuming compared to computational simulations of similar impact events. This study aimed to simulate human volunteer biodynamic response to unidirectional accelerative loading. Data from seven experimental studies involving 212 volunteer tests performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory were used to reconstruct 13 unique loading conditions across four different loading directions using finite element human body model (HBM) simulations. Acceleration pulses and boundary conditions from the experimental tests were applied to the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified 50th percentile male occupant (M50-OS) using the LS-Dyna finite element solver. Head acceleration, chest acceleration, and seat belt force traces were compared between the experimental and matched simulation signals using correlation and analysis (CORA) software and averaged into a comprehensive response score ranging from 0 to 1 with 1 representing a perfect match. The mean comprehensive response scores were 0.689 ± 0.018 (mean ± 1 standard deviation) in two frontal simulations, 0.683 ± 0.060 in four rear simulations, 0.676 ± 0.043 in five lateral simulations, and 0.774 ± 0.013 in two vertical simulations. The CORA scores for head and chest accelerations in these simulations exceeded mean scores reported in the original development and validation of the GHBMC M50-OS model. Collectively, the CORA scores indicated that the HBM in these boundary conditions closely replicated the kinematics of the human volunteers across all loading directions.

Keywords

Finite element modeling Human body model Aerospace Spaceflight Biomechanics Human volunteer GHBMC Validation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by NASA Human Health and Performance Contract (HHPC) Award Number NNJ15HK11B through KBRwyle. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the views of NASA or KBRwyle. Simulations were performed on the DEAC cluster at Wake Forest University. This work also used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575. Specifically, it used the Bridges system, which is supported by NSF Award Number ACI-1445606, at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC).31

Conflict of interest

Dr. Stitzel and Dr. Gayzik are members of Elemance, LLC, which provides academic and commercial licenses of the GHBMC-owned human body computer models.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams, G. R., V. J. Caiozzo, and K. M. Baldwin. Skeletal muscle unweighting: spaceflight and ground-based models. J. Appl. Physiol. 95(2185–2201):2003, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buhrman, J. The AFRL Biodynamics Data Bank and Modeling Applications. Dayton: RTO Meeting, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caldwell, E., M. Gernhardt, J. Somers, D. Younker, and N. Newby. NASA Evidence Report: Risk of Injury due to Dynamic Loads. Houston, TX: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2012.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Currie-Gregg, N. J., M. L. Gernhardt, C. Lawrence, and J. T. Somers. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection. 2016.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Danelson K. A., A. R. Kemper, M. J. Mason, M. Tegtmeyer, S. A. Swiatkowski, J. H. Bolte IV, and W. N. Hardy. Comparison of ATD to PMHS response in the under-body blast environment. SAE Technical Paper, 2015.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davis, M. L., and F. S. Gayzik. An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Finite Element Models. J. Biomech. Eng. 138:101003, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Decker, W., B. Koya, M. L. Davis, and F. S. Gayzik. Modular use of human body models of varying levels of complexity: Validation of head kinematics. Traffic Inj. Prev. 18:S155–S160, 2017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Doczy, E., S. Mosher, and J. Buhrman. The effects of variable helmet weight and subject bracing on neck loading during frontal-G x impact. Dayton, OH: General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems, 2004.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eppinger R. H. Prediction of thoracic injury using measurable experimental parameters. Proceedings of the International Conference of Experimental Safety Vehicles, NHTSA, Washington, DC, 1976, pp. 770–780.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gayzik, F., I. Marcus, K. Danelson, J. Rupp, C. Bass, N. Yoganandan, and J. Zhang. A point-wise normalization method for development of biofidelity response corridors. J. Biomech. 48:4173–4177, 2015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gayzik, F., D. Moreno, K. Danelson, C. McNally, K. Klinich, and J. D. Stitzel. External landmark, body surface, and volume data of a mid-sized male in seated and standing postures. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40:2019–2032, 2012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gayzik, F., D. Moreno, C. Geer, S. Wuertzer, R. Martin, and J. Stitzel. Development of a full body CAD dataset for computational modeling: a multi-modality approach. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 39:2568, 2011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gehre C., H. Gades, and P. Wernicke. Objective rating of signals using test and simulation responses. Proceedings of the 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Stuttgart, Germany, 2009.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hearon B. F. and J. W. Brinkley. Comparison of human impact response in restraint systems with and without a negative G strap. DTIC Document, 1986.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hill D., T. Knox, and D. Crockett. Monitoring race car drivers using helmet and head-mounted sensors. SAE Technical Paper, 2000.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones R. Landing impact attenuation for non-surface-planing landers. 1970.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Killian, J., and H. F. Boedecker. Whole Body Response—Lateral: Comparison Between Human and Dummy Subjects Utilizing a Nine Transducer Accelerometer Package. Dayton: Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, 1981.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lang, T., A. LeBlanc, H. Evans, Y. Lu, H. Genant, and A. Yu. Cortical and trabecular bone mineral loss from the spine and hip in long-duration spaceflight. J. Bone Miner. Res. 19:1006–1012, 2004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mertz, H. J., A. L. Irwin, and P. Prasad. Biomechanical and scaling bases for frontal and side impact injury assessment reference values. Stapp Car Crash J. 47:155, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Park G., T. Kim, J. R. Crandall, C. Arregui Dalmases, and L. Narro. Comparison of kinematics of GHBMC to PMHS on the side impact condition. Proceedings of the 2013 IRCOBI Conference, 2013, pp. 368–379.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Payne, P. R. Personnel Restraint and Support System Dynamics. Cincinnati: Frost Engineering Development Corp Denver Co, 1965.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perry, C., and J. Buhrman. Effect of helmet inertial properties on head and neck response during + G z impact accelerations. J. Gravit. Physiol 2:P88–91, 1994.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Perry, C. E., and J. R. Buhrman. Effect of helmet inertial properties on the biodynamics of the head and neck during + G z impact accelerations. SAFE J. 26:34–41, 1996.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Perry C., J. Buhrman, E. Doczy, and S. Mosher. The effects of variable helmet weight on head response and neck loading during lateral + G y impact. Proceedings of the 41st Annual SAFE Symposium. Jacksonville, FL: 2003.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Russo D., T. Foley, K. Stroud, J. Connolly, B. Tillman, and L. Pickett. NASA space flight human system standards. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA, 2007, pp. 1468–1470.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Salerno M. D., J. W. Brinkley, and M. A. Orzech. Dynamic response of the human head to + G x impact. DTIC Document, 1987.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Salzar, R. S., J. R. Bolton, J. R. Crandall, G. R. Paskoff, and B. S. Shender. Ejection injury to the spine in small aviators: sled tests of manikins vs. post mortem specimens. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 80:621–628, 2009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schwartz, D., B. Guleyupoglu, B. Koya, J. D. Stitzel, and F. S. Gayzik. Development of a computationally efficient full human body finite element model. Traf Injury Prev 16:S49–S56, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Somers J. T., and D. Gohmert. Application of the brinkley dynamic response criterion to spacecraft transient dynamic events. Technical Paper No. NASA/TM-2013-217380). United States: NASA. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/258207991_Application_of_the_Brinkley_Dynamic_Response_Model_to_Spacecraft_Transient_Events/file/504635273b3e8a8cf0.pdf, vehicle landing 2013.
  30. 30.
    Somers, J. T., N. J. Newby, C. Lawrence, R. L. DeWeese, D. Moorcroft, and S. E. Phelps. Investigation of the THOR anthropomorphic test device for predicting occupant injuries during spacecraft launch aborts and landing. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2:4, 2014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Towns, J., T. Cockerill, M. Dahan, I. Foster, K. Gaither, A. Grimshaw, V. Hazlewood, S. Lathrop, D. Lifka, and G. D. Peterson. XSEDE: accelerating scientific discovery. Comput. Sci. Eng. 16:62–74, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vavalle, N. A., M. L. Davis, J. D. Stitzel, and F. S. Gayzik. Quantitative validation of a human body finite element model using rigid body impacts. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 43:2163–2174, 2015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vavalle, N. A., D. P. Moreno, A. C. Rhyne, J. D. Stitzel, and F. S. Gayzik. Lateral impact validation of a geometrically accurate full body finite element model for blunt injury prediction. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 41:497–512, 2013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Weis, E. B., N. P. Clarke, and J. W. Brinkley. Human response to several impact acceleration orientations and patterns. Wright-Patterson OH: Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Lab, 1963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • James P. Gaewsky
    • 1
    • 2
  • Derek A. Jones
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xin Ye
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bharath Koya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kyle P. McNamara
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Scott Gayzik
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ashley A. Weaver
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jacob B. Putnam
    • 3
  • Jeffrey T. Somers
    • 3
  • Joel D. Stitzel
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Wake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Virginia Tech-Wake Forest Center for Injury BiomechanicsWinston-SalemUSA
  3. 3.KBRwyleHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations