Biomechanical Analysis of Porcine Cartilage Elasticity
Grafting of tissue-engineered cartilage to joints with osteoarthritis has the potential to supersede arthroplasty as the standard of care. However, in order to support the development of functional tissue engineering methods, the subfailure biomechanics of the individual cartilage types that comprise joints must be determined. Current methods for analyzing tissues are based on imaging and are therefore unable to profile the strain dependence of mechanical behaviors within different cartilage types. Recently, an analysis technique based on Optical Fiber Polarimetric Elastography (OFPE) has overcome these challenges. OFPE has been used to characterize the different mechanical behaviors of a range of unprocessed biomaterials and tissues. In the present work, this technique is used to characterize the biomechanics of both articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage within a porcine knee. OFPE testing of the tissue is conducted over a range of physiological loading and unloading values. These results demonstrate the distinctive mechanics of each cartilage type. Due to their different locations within the knee, each cartilage type exhibits distinctly unique biomechanical behavior. Based on the results of OFPE, we correlate the specific buckling, delamination, and bridging events to maxima and minima along the loading and unloading curves. This provides unprecedented detail with regard to the subfailure biomechanics. This information is integral to the design of the next generation of tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, OFPE will be used across multiple disciplines to rapidly determine the mechanical behavior of tissue-engineered constructs to support functional tissue engineering efforts.
KeywordsPolarimetry Medical optics instrumentation Nondestructive testing Elastography Cartilage Biomechanics
The authors thank R.A. Arboleda, D. Chen, D. Cummins, N. Katkhouda, A. Kovach, S. Liu, S. Mumenthaler, and V. Sun. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research [N00014-17-2270] and the A. E. Mann Graduate Research Fellowship. The study was conducted at the University of Southern California under Department of Animal Resource Tissue Request Form 10843.
Conflict of interest
The Optical Fiber Polarimetric Elastography (OFPE) instrument used in this work is patented by A.M. Armani, A. W. Hudnut, and their institution (US Patent 9791333).
- 21.Hudnut, A. W., L. Lash-Rosenberg, A. Xin, J. A. Leal Doblado, C. Zurita-Lopez, Q. Wang, and A. M. Armani. Role of extracellular matrix in the biomechanical behavior of pancreatic tissue. ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 4(5):1916–1923, 2018.Google Scholar