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Full Mimicking of Coronary Hemodynamics for Ex-Vivo Stimulation of Human Saphenous Veins

Abstract

After coronary artery bypass grafting, structural modifications of the saphenous vein wall lead to lumen narrowing in response to the altered hemodynamic conditions. Here we present the design of a novel ex vivo culture system conceived for mimicking central coronary artery hemodynamics, and we report the results of biomechanical stimulation experiments using human saphenous vein samples. The novel pulsatile system used an aortic-like pressure for forcing a time-dependent coronary-like resistance to obtain the corresponding coronary-like flow rate. The obtained pulsatile pressures and flow rates (diastolic/systolic: 80/120 mmHg and 200/100 mL/min, respectively) showed a reliable mimicking of the complex coronary hemodynamic environment. Saphenous vein segments from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 12) were subjected to stimulation in our bioreactor with coronary pulsatile pressure/flow patterns or with venous-like perfusion. After 7-day stimulation, SVs were fixed and stained for morphometric evaluation and immunofluorescence. Results were compared with untreated segments of the same veins. Morphometric and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that 7 days of pulsatile stimulation: (i) did not affect integrity of the vessel wall and lumen perimeter, (ii) significantly decreased both intima and media thickness, (iii) led to partial endothelial denudation, and (iv) induced apoptosis in the vessel wall. These data are consistent with the early vessel remodeling events involved in venous bypass adaptation to arterial flow/pressure patterns. The pulsatile system proved to be a suitable device to identify ex vivo mechanical cues leading to graft adaptation.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Health research Project RF-2011-02346867. The authors would like to thank Dr. Emilio Savoldelli for his support during the preliminary design of the CPD circuit and Dr. Francesco Sturla for his support with MATLAB.

Disclosure

The authors declare no conflict of interest to disclose.

Author information

Correspondence to Marco Piola.

Additional information

Marco Piola and Matthijs Ruiter contributed equally to this work.

Associate Editor Michael Gower oversaw the review of this article.

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Piola, M., Ruiter, M., Vismara, R. et al. Full Mimicking of Coronary Hemodynamics for Ex-Vivo Stimulation of Human Saphenous Veins. Ann Biomed Eng 45, 884–897 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-016-1747-7

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Keywords

  • Coronary flow rate
  • Pulsatile pressure
  • Saphenous vein graft disease
  • Ex vivo platform
  • Wall remodeling