Surface and Subsurface Analyses of Metal-on-Polyethylene Total Hip Replacement Retrievals
- 867 Downloads
Metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) articulations are one of the most reliable implanted hip prostheses. Unfortunately, long-term failure remains an obstacle to the service life. There is a lack of higher resolution research investigating the metallic surface component of MoP hip implants. This study investigates the surface and subsurface features of metallic cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) femoral head components from failed MoP retrievals. Unused prostheses were used for comparison to differentiate between wear-induced defects and imperfections incurred during implant manufacturing. The predominant scratch morphology observed on the non-implanted references was shallow and linear, whereas the scratches on the retrievals consisted of largely nonlinear, irregular scratches of varying depth (up to 150 nm in retrievals and up to 60 nm in reference samples). Characteristic hard phases were observed on the surface and subsurface material of the cast samples. Across all samples, a 100–400 nm thick nanocrystalline layer was visible in the immediate subsurface microstructure. Although observation of the nanocrystalline layer has been reported in metal-on-metal articulations, its presence in MoP retrievals and unimplanted prostheses has not been extensively examined. The results suggest that manufacturing-induced surface and subsurface microstructural features are present in MoP hip prostheses prior to implantation and naturally, these imperfections may influence the in vivo wear processes after implantation.
KeywordsHip implant retrievals Cobalt chromium Metal-on-polymer Transmission electron microscopy Biotribology Electron microscopy
Funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), under Grant Agreement No. GA-310477 is gratefully acknowledged. Funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Discovery Grant Program and the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), under Grant Agreement No. GA-310477 is gratefully acknowledged. Electron microscopy was performed at the Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy at McMaster University, a facility supported by NSERC and other government agencies.
- 12.Catelas, I., J. D. Bobyn, J. B. Medley, J. J. Krygier, D. J. Zukor, and O. L. Huk. Size, shape, and composition of wear particles from metal-metal hip simulator testing: effects of alloy and number of loading cycles. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 67(1):312–327, 2003. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.10088.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Cipriano, C. A., P. S. Issack, B. Beksac, A. G. Della Valle, T. P. Sculco, and E. A. Salvati. Metallosis after metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty. Am. J. Orthop. (Belle Mead NJ) 37:E18–E25, 2008.Google Scholar
- 18.Heiner, A. D., A. L. Galvin, J. Fisher, J. J. Callaghan, and T. D. Brown. Scratching vulnerability of conventional vs highly cross-linked polyethylene liners because of large embedded third-body particles. J. Arthroplasty 27(5):742–749, 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2011.10.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 19.Information CI for H. Hip and Knee Replacements in Canada: Canadian Joint Replacement Registry 2013 Annual Report, 2013.Google Scholar
- 20.Jacobs, J., A. Shanbhag, T. Glant, J. Black, and J. Galante. Wear debris in total joint replacements. J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 2:212–220, 1994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10709011.
- 21.JAMP-9500F Instruction manual.Google Scholar
- 33.Patten, E. W., E. Beitel, A. Swan, et al. Classification of scratches on retrieved cobalt chrome humeral heads using 3d profilometry. 58th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society 38 (1210): Poster No. 1210, 2012.Google Scholar
- 35.Pourzal, R., M. Morlock, W. Ma, and A. Fischer. Are Micro-Structural Changes in MoM Hip Resurfacings Comparable to Total Hip Arthroplasties? Poster No. 2360. In: 55th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society (2360):2360, 2006.Google Scholar
- 38.Rogmark, C. and O. Rolfson. Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register 2012.Google Scholar
- 40.Stemmer, P., R. Pourzal, Y. Liao, et al. In: Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Replacement Devices, edited by S. M. Kurtz, A. S. Greenwald, W. H. Mihalko, J. E. Lemons. 2013, pp. 1–17. doi: 10.1520/STP1560-EB.
- 47.Wimmer, M. A., M. T. Mathew, M. P. Laurent, et al. Tribochemical reactions in metal-on-metal hip joints influence wear and corrosion. In: Met Total Hip Replace Devices, edited by S. M. Kurtz, A. S. Greenwald, W. H. Mihalko, J. E. Lemons 2013, pp. 1–18. doi: 10.1520/STP1560-EB.
- 49.Wishart, N., R. Beaumont, E. Young, V. Mccormack, and M. Swanson. National Joint Registry: 11th Annual Report. 2014, December 2013.Google Scholar
- 51.Zhu, Y. H., K. Y. Chiu, and W. M. Tang. Review article: polyethylene wear and osteolysis in total hip arthroplasty. J. Orthop. Surg. (Hong Kong). 9(1):91–99, 2001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12468851.