Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 1234–1245 | Cite as

In Vivo Evaluation of Wearable Head Impact Sensors

  • Lyndia C. Wu
  • Vaibhav Nangia
  • Kevin Bui
  • Bradley Hammoor
  • Mehmet Kurt
  • Fidel Hernandez
  • Calvin Kuo
  • David B. Camarillo
Article

Abstract

Inertial sensors are commonly used to measure human head motion. Some sensors have been tested with dummy or cadaver experiments with mixed results, and methods to evaluate sensors in vivo are lacking. Here we present an in vivo method using high speed video to test teeth-mounted (mouthguard), soft tissue-mounted (skin patch), and headgear-mounted (skull cap) sensors during 6–13 g sagittal soccer head impacts. Sensor coupling to the skull was quantified by displacement from an ear-canal reference. Mouthguard displacements were within video measurement error (<1 mm), while the skin patch and skull cap displaced up to 4 and 13 mm from the ear-canal reference, respectively. We used the mouthguard, which had the least displacement from skull, as the reference to assess 6-degree-of-freedom skin patch and skull cap measurements. Linear and rotational acceleration magnitudes were over-predicted by both the skin patch (with 120% NRMS error for \(a_{\rm mag}\), 290% for \(\alpha _{\rm mag}\)) and the skull cap (320% NRMS error for \(a_{\rm mag}\), 500% for \(\alpha _{\rm mag}\)). Such over-predictions were largely due to out-of-plane motion. To model sensor error, we found that in-plane skin patch linear acceleration in the anterior–posterior direction could be modeled by an underdamped viscoelastic system. In summary, the mouthguard showed tighter skull coupling than the other sensor mounting approaches. Furthermore, the in vivo methods presented are valuable for investigating skull acceleration sensor technologies.

Keywords

Head impact sensors Traumatic brain injury Wearable sensors Instrumented mouthguard Instrumented skin patch Instrumented skull cap High speed video Soft tissue modeling 

Supplementary material

10439_2015_1423_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (44 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 44 KB)
10439_2015_1423_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (69 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (pdf 69 KB)
10439_2015_1423_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (76 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (pdf 75 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Bartsch, A., S. Samorezov, E. Benzel, V. Miele, and D. Brett. Validation of an “intelligent mouthguard” single event head impact dosimeter. Stapp Car Crash J. 58:1–27, 2014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beckwith, J. G., R. M. Greenwald, and J. J. Chu. Measuring head kinematics in football: correlation between the head impact telemetry system and hybrid III headform. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 40(1):237–248, 2012.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bouguet, J. Y. Camera Calibration Toolbox for Matlab. http://www.vision.caltech.edu/bouguetj/calib_doc/, 2013.
  4. 4.
    Camarillo, D. B, P. B. Shull, J. Mattson, R. Shultz, and D. Garza. An instrumented mouthguard for measuring linear and angular head impact kinematics in American football. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 41 (9): 1939–1949, 2013. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Christopher, J. J., M. R. Sochor, J. Pellettiere, and R. S. Salzar. Assessment of Ear- and Tooth-Mounted Accelerometers as Representative of Human Head Response. SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-0805, 2013.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Duma, S. M., S. J. Manoogian, W. R. Bussone, P. G. Brolinson, M. W. Goforth, J. J. Donnenwerth, R. M. Greenwald, J. J. Chu, and J. J. Crisco. Analysis of real-time head accelerations in collegiate football players. Clin. J. Sport Med. 15(1):3–8, 2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ewins, D. J. Modal Testing: Theory, Practice and Application, 2nd edn. Hertfordshire: Research Studies Press Ltd., 2000.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). 571.202a. Section 571, Standard 202a-Head restraints, 2014. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Funk, J. R., J. M. Cormier, C. E. Bain, H. Guzman, and E. Bonugli. Validation and Application of a Methodology to Calculate Head Accelerations and Neck Loading in Soccer Ball Impacts. SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-0251, 2009.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heikkila, J. and O. Silvén. A Four-step Camera Calibration Procedure with Implicit Image Correction. In: Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1997, pp. 1106–1112.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hernandez, F., P. B. Shull, and D. B. Camarillo. Evaluation of a laboratory model of human head impact biomechanics. J. Biomech., 2015 (in press).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hernandez, F., L. C. Wu, M. C. Yip, K. Laksari, A. R. Hoffman, J. R. Lopez, G. A. Grant, S. Kleiven, and D. B. Camarillo. Six degree-of-freedom measurements of human mild traumatic brain injury. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 43(8):1918–1934, 2014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Higgins, M., P. D. Halstead, L. Snyder-Mackler, and D. Barlow. Measurement of impact acceleration: mouthpiece accelerometer versus helmet accelerometer. J. Athl. Train. 42(1):5–10, 2007.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jadischke, R., D. C. Viano, N. Dau, A. I. King, and J. McCarthy. On the accuracy of the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System used in football helmets. J. Biomech. 46(13):2310–2315, 2013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim, W., A. S. Voloshin, S. H. Johnson, and A. Simkin. Measurement of the impulsive bone motion by skin-mounted accelerometers. J. Biomech. Eng. 115(1):47–52, 1993.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Knox, T. Validation of Earplug Accelerometers as a Means of Measuring Head Motion. SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-3538, 2004.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lucchetti, L., A. Cappozzo, A. Cappello, and U. D. Croce. Skin movement artefact assessment and compensation in the estimation of knee-joint kinematics. J. Biomech. 31(11):977–984, 1998.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pellman, E. J., D. C. Viano, A. M. Tucker, and I. R. Casson. Concussion in professional football, part 1: reconstruction of game impacts and injuries. Neurosurgery 53(4):796, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reinschmidt, C., B. M. Nigg, A. Lundberg, A. J. van den Bogert, and N. Murphy. Effect of skin movement on the analysis of skeletal knee joint motion during running. J. Biomech. 30(1):729–732, 1997.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rowson, S. and S. M. Duma. Development of the STAR evaluation system for football helmets: integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 39(8): 2130–2140, 2011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rowson, S., J. G. Beckwith, J. J. Chu, D. S. Leonard, R. M. Greenwald, and S. M. Duma. A six degree of freedom head acceleration measurement device for use in football. J. Appl. Biomech. 27(1):8–14, 2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salzar, R. S., C. R. Dale Bass, and J. A. Pellettiere. Improving earpiece accelerometer coupling to the head. SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-2978, 2014.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shewchenko, N., C. Withnall, M. Keown, R. Gittens, and J. Dvorak. Heading in football. Part 1: development of biomechanical methods to investigate head response. Br. J. Sports Med. 39(Suppl 1):10–25, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shultz, R., A. E. Kedgley, and T. R. Jenkyn. Quantifying skin motion artifact error of the hindfoot and forefoot marker clusters with the optical tracking of a multi-segment foot model using single-plane fluoroscopy. Gait Posture 34(1):44–48, 2011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Takhounts, E. G., M. J. Craig, K. Moorhouse, J. McFadden, and V. Hasija. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC). Stapp Car Crash J. 57:243–266, 2013.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Trujillo, D. M. and H. R. Busby. A mathematical method for the measurement of bone motion with skin-mounted accelerometers. J. Biomech. Eng. 112:229–231, 1990.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wu, L. C., L. Zarnescu, V. Nangia, B. Cam, and D. B. Camarillo. A head impact detection system using SVM classification and proximity sensing in an instrumented mouthguard. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(11):2659–2668, 2014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang, Z. Flexible camera calibration by viewing a plane from unknown orientations. In: Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, vol. 1, pp. 666–673. 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lyndia C. Wu
    • 1
  • Vaibhav Nangia
    • 2
  • Kevin Bui
    • 1
  • Bradley Hammoor
    • 1
  • Mehmet Kurt
    • 1
  • Fidel Hernandez
    • 2
  • Calvin Kuo
    • 2
  • David B. Camarillo
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations