Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 1257–1274 | Cite as

Laboratory Validation of Two Wearable Sensor Systems for Measuring Head Impact Severity in Football Players

  • Gunter P. SiegmundEmail author
  • Kevin M. Guskiewicz
  • Stephen W. Marshall
  • Alyssa L. DeMarco
  • Stephanie J. Bonin


Wearable sensors can measure head impact frequency and magnitude in football players. Our goal was to quantify the impact detection rate and validity of the direction and peak kinematics of two wearable sensors: a helmet system (HITS) and a mouthguard system (X2). Using a linear impactor, modified Hybrid-III headform and one helmet model, we conducted 16 impacts for each system at 12 helmet sites and 5 speeds (3.6–11.2 m/s) (N = 896 tests). Peak linear and angular accelerations (PLA, PAA), head injury criteria (HIC) and impact directions from each device were compared to reference sensors in the headform. Both sensors detected ~96% of impacts. Median angular errors for impact directions were 34° for HITS and 16° for X2. PLA, PAA and HIC were simultaneously valid at 2 sites for HITS (side, oblique) and one site for X2 (side). At least one kinematic parameter was valid at 2 and 7 other sites for HITS and X2 respectively. Median relative errors for PLA were 7% for HITS and -7% for X2. Although sensor validity may differ for other helmets and headforms, our analyses show that data generated by these two sensors need careful interpretation.


Head impact Wearable sensors Validity Acceleration Concussion Football 



This study was funded by the National Football League (NFL). The authors thank Chris Withnall, Michael Wonnacott, Dave Halstead and Elizabeth McCalley for helping refine the protocol and acquire the data; and Christoph Mack, Jason Thibado, Jonathan Beckwith, Richard Greenwald, and Thad Ide for answering questions about their products. Our conclusions do not reflect the views of the NFL. SWM is partly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (R49-CE002479). The NFL paid MEA Forensic for time and disbursements related to work performed by GPS, ALD, SJB and other MEA employees for this study. GPS and his spouse own shares in MEA Forensic, and GPS, ALD and SJB are salaried employees of MEA Forensic. KMG is a member of the NFL’s Head, Neck and Spine Committee and Chair of the Subcommittee on Equipment and Playing Rules. SWM is associated with the Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention. None of the authors have a financial interest in either device. Biokinetics & Associates produce the MLSH and linear impactor, but had no hand in post-processing the data reported here. The NFL also paid Biokinetics & Associates and Southern Impact Research Center for their staff time, disbursements and lab usage. Drs. Barry Myers and David Meaney worked as paid consultants to the NFL and contributed to developing the protocol.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1675 kb)


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MEA Forensic Engineers & ScientistsRichmondCanada
  2. 2.School of KinesiologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Matthew A. Gfeller Sport-Related Traumatic Brain Injury Research CenterUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Injury Prevention Research CenterUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.MEA Forensic Engineers & ScientistsLaguna HillsUSA

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