Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 942–953 | Cite as

Fluid–Structure Interaction Analysis of Papillary Muscle Forces Using a Comprehensive Mitral Valve Model with 3D Chordal Structure

  • Milan Toma
  • Morten Ø. Jensen
  • Daniel R. Einstein
  • Ajit P. Yoganathan
  • Richard P. Cochran
  • Karyn S. Kunzelman


Numerical models of native heart valves are being used to study valve biomechanics to aid design and development of repair procedures and replacement devices. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional, fully coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) systems. Such simulations are useful for predicting the mechanical and hemodynamic loading on implanted valve devices. A current challenge for improving the accuracy of these predictions is choosing and implementing modeling boundary conditions. In order to address this challenge, we are utilizing an advanced in vitro system to validate FSI conditions for the mitral valve system. Explanted ovine mitral valves were mounted in an in vitro setup, and structural data for the mitral valve was acquired with \(\mu\)CT. Experimental data from the in vitro ovine mitral valve system were used to validate the computational model. As the valve closes, the hemodynamic data, high speed leaflet dynamics, and force vectors from the in vitro system were compared to the results of the FSI simulation computational model. The total force of 2.6 N per papillary muscle is matched by the computational model. In vitro and in vivo force measurements enable validating and adjusting material parameters to improve the accuracy of computational models. The simulations can then be used to answer questions that are otherwise not possible to investigate experimentally. This work is important to maximize the validity of computational models of not just the mitral valve, but any biomechanical aspect using computational simulation in designing medical devices.


Fluid–structure interaction Mitral valve Forces Comprehensive computational model Papillary muscle Chordal structure 



This study was supported by a grant from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (R01-HL092926).

Conflict of interest

No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milan Toma
    • 1
  • Morten Ø. Jensen
    • 1
  • Daniel R. Einstein
    • 2
  • Ajit P. Yoganathan
    • 1
  • Richard P. Cochran
    • 3
  • Karyn S. Kunzelman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Computational Biology & BioinformaticsPacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MaineOronoUSA

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