Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 819–831 | Cite as

Scaffolds for Tendon and Ligament Repair and Regeneration

  • Anthony RatcliffeEmail author
  • David L. Butler
  • Nathaniel A. Dyment
  • Paul J. CagleJr.
  • Christopher S. Proctor
  • Seena S. Ratcliffe
  • Evan L. Flatow


Enhanced tendon and ligament repair would have a major impact on orthopedic surgery outcomes, resulting in reduced repair failures and repeat surgeries, more rapid return to function, and reduced health care costs. Scaffolds have been used for mechanical and biologic reinforcement of repair and regeneration with mixed results. This review summarizes efforts made using biologic and synthetic scaffolds using rotator cuff and ACL as examples of clinical applications, discusses recent advances that have shown promising clinical outcomes, and provides insight into future therapy.


Tendon Ligament Rotator cuff ACL repair Healing Regeneration Scaffold Reinforcement Augmentation Clinical repair of tendon Tensile properties Tensile stiffness Tensile strength 



The manuscript was written in part with support of NIH Grants R44AR060032 (AR), AR056943 (DB), AR54713 (ND), AR052374 (ND), DE021989 (ND), AR052743 (ELF), AG039561 (ELF), and NSF IGERT 0333377 (DB). Dr Anthony Ratcliffe and Seena Ratcliffe are employees of Synthasome, Inc. Drs. David Butler, Nathanial Dyment, Paul J. Cagle Jr, Christopher S. Proctor, and Evan L. Flatow have no financial conflicts.


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony Ratcliffe
    • 1
    Email author
  • David L. Butler
    • 2
  • Nathaniel A. Dyment
    • 3
  • Paul J. CagleJr.
    • 4
  • Christopher S. Proctor
    • 5
  • Seena S. Ratcliffe
    • 1
  • Evan L. Flatow
    • 4
  1. 1.Synthasome, Inc.San DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Tissue Engineering and Biomechanics Laboratories, Biomedical Engineering Program, College of Engineering and Applied SciencesUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Reconstructive Sciences, School of Dental MedicineUniversity of Connecticut Health CenterFarmingtonUSA
  4. 4.Leni and Peter W. May Department of OrthopaedicsIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Alta OrthopaedicsSanta BarbaraUSA

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