Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 1143–1144 | Cite as

Validation of Algorithms for the Estimation of Pulse Transit Time: Where do We Stand Today?

  • Theodoros G. PapaioannouEmail author
  • Orestis Vardoulis
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos

Gaddum et al.,2 recently published in Annals of Biomedical Engineering an interesting article seeking the optimal method for the estimation of arterial pulse transit time (TT) between two arterial sites. Accurate and precise TT estimation in vivo is a critical issue, because TT is one of the two parameters (together with distance measurement) needed for the calculation of pulse wave velocity (PWV).

PWV is the hallmark of the assessment of arterial stiffness in clinical practice. To date carotid-to-femoral PWV, a measure of segmental stiffness between ascending aorta and femoral artery, is recommended as the gold standard to evaluate arterial stiffening.3 PWV is estimated by the ratio of the distance (m) travelled by a pressure, velocity or distension wave between two arterial sites to the TT. It is not possible to measure TT in vivo by direct means and hence several computational algorithms have been proposed aiming to determine the time delay between two waves.

Gaddum et al.2aimed...


Transit Time Pulse Wave Velocity Applanation Tonometry Pulse Transit Time Arterial Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Fielden, S. W., B. K. Fornwalt, M. Jerosch-Herold, R. L. Eisner, A. E. Stillman, and J. N. Oshinski. A new method for the determination of aortic pulse wave velocity using cross-correlation on 2D PCMR velocity data. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 27:1382–1387, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gaddum, N. R., J. Alastruey, P. Beerbaum, P. Chowienczyk, and T. Schaeffter. A technical assessment of pulse wave velocity algorithms applied to non-invasive arterial waveforms. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 41:2617–2629, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Laurent, S., J. Cockcroft, L. Van Bortel, P. Boutouyrie, C. Giannattasio, D. Hayoz, B. Pannier, C. Vlachopoulos, I. Wilkinson, and H. Struijker-Boudier. Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Eur. Heart J. 27:2588–2605, 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vardoulis, O., T. G. Papaioannou, and N. Stergiopulos. Validation of a novel and existing algorithms for the estimation of pulse transit time: advancing the accuracy in pulse wave velocity measurement. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 304:H1558–H1567, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vlachopoulos, C., K. Aznaouridis, and C. Stefanadis. Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55:1318–1327, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodoros G. Papaioannou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Orestis Vardoulis
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular TechnologyEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Biomedical Engineering Unit, First Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations