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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 971–985 | Cite as

Combined Computational and Experimental Approach to Improve the Assessment of Mitral Regurgitation by Echocardiography

  • Simon J. Sonntag
  • Wei Li
  • Michael Becker
  • Wiebke Kaestner
  • Martin R. Büsen
  • Nikolaus Marx
  • Dorit Merhof
  • Ulrich Steinseifer
Article

Abstract

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most frequent valvular heart diseases. To assess MR severity, color Doppler imaging (CDI) is the clinical standard. However, inadequate reliability, poor reproducibility and heavy user-dependence are known limitations. A novel approach combining computational and experimental methods is currently under development aiming to improve the quantification. A flow chamber for a circulatory flow loop was developed. Three different orifices were used to mimic variations of MR. The flow field was recorded simultaneously by a 2D Doppler ultrasound transducer and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted using the same geometry and boundary conditions. The resulting computed velocity field was used to simulate synthetic Doppler signals. Comparison between PIV and CFD shows a high level of agreement. The simulated CDI exhibits the same characteristics as the recorded color Doppler images. The feasibility of the proposed combination of experimental and computational methods for the investigation of MR is shown and the numerical methods are successfully validated against the experiments. Furthermore, it is discussed how the approach can be used in the long run as a platform to improve the assessment of MR quantification.

Keywords

Mitral valve insufficiency Color Doppler imaging Particle Image Velocimetry Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulated Doppler Ultrasound Validation 

Abbreviations

CAD

Computer Aided Design

CDI

Color Doppler imaging

CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics

CWD

Continues wave Doppler

DNS

Direct Numerical Simulation

DUS

Doppler ultrasound

FSI

Fluid-Structure Interaction

LES

Large-Eddy Simulation

MR

Mitral regurgitation

MV

Mitral Valve

NSE

Navier–Stokes equations

PISA

Proximal isovelocity surface area

PIV

Particle Image Velocimetry

RANS

Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations

SAM

Structured Auxiliary Mesh

SAMe

Structured Auxiliary Mesh with element storage

SAMEE

Structured Auxiliary Mesh with Exact Element storage

SGS

Subgrid-Scale

SDUS

Simulated Doppler ultrasound

US

Ultrasound

Notes

Acknowledgment

This project was funded by the Exploratory Research Space RWTH Aachen.

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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon J. Sonntag
    • 1
  • Wei Li
    • 2
  • Michael Becker
    • 3
  • Wiebke Kaestner
    • 3
  • Martin R. Büsen
    • 1
  • Nikolaus Marx
    • 3
  • Dorit Merhof
    • 2
  • Ulrich Steinseifer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular Engineering, Institute of Applied Medical EngineeringRWTH Aachen University and University Hospital AachenAachenGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Imaging & Computer VisionRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  3. 3.Department for Cardiology, Pneumology, Angiology and Internistic Intensive-Care MedicineUniversity Hospital AachenAachenGermany

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