Distribution of Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption in Primary Blast Injury
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from explosive-related blast overpressure is a topic at the forefront of neurotrauma research. Compromise of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and other cerebral blood vessel dysfunction is commonly reported in both experimental and clinical studies on blast injury. This study used a rifle primer-driven shock tube to investigate cerebrovascular injury in rats exposed to low-impulse, pure primary blast at three levels of overpressure (145, 232, and 323 kPa) and with three survival times (acute, 24, and 48 h). BBB disruption was quantified immunohistochemically by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) extravasation with image analysis techniques. Pure primary blast generated small lesions scattered throughout the brain. The number and size of lesions increased with peak overpressure level, but no significant difference was seen between survival times. Despite laterally directed blast exposure, equal numbers of lesions were found in each hemisphere of the brain. These observations suggest that cerebrovascular injury due to primary blast is distinct from that associated with conventional TBI.
KeywordsTraumatic brain injury Vascular dysfunction Immunohistology Brain lesion
Funding for this research was provided by the Department of Defense (W81XWH-08-1-0295). The authors would like to acknowledge Jordan Walker and Louise Butler for assistance with tissue processing, imaging, and data analysis.
Conflict of interest
No conflicting financial interests exist.
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