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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 828–839 | Cite as

Endothelial Glycocalyx: Permeability Barrier and Mechanosensor

  • F. E. CurryEmail author
  • R. H. Adamson
Article

Abstract

Endothelial cells are covered with a polysaccharide rich layer more than 400 nm thick, mechanical properties of which limit access of circulating plasma components to endothelial cell membranes. The barrier properties of this endothelial surface layer are deduced from the rate of tracer penetration into the layer and the mechanics of red and white cell movement through capillary microvessels. This review compares the mechanosensor and permeability properties of an inner layer (100–150 nm, close to the endothelial membrane) characterized as a quasi-periodic structure which accounts for key aspects of transvascular exchange and vascular permeability with those of the whole endothelial surface layers. We conclude that many of the barrier properties of the whole surface layer are not representative of the primary fiber matrix forming the molecular filter determining transvascular exchange. The differences between the properties of the whole layer and the inner glycocalyx structures likely reflect dynamic aspects of the endothelial surface layer including tracer binding to specific components, synthesis and degradation of key components, activation of signaling pathways in the endothelial cells when components of the surface layer are lost or degraded, and the spatial distribution of adhesion proteins in microdomains of the endothelial cell membrane.

Keywords

Shear stress Fiber matrix Vascular Endothelium Fluid balance Inflammation Edema 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study is supported by the NIH HL28607 and the HL44485. The authors thank Prof. Scott I. Simon for permitting the use of the illustration in Fig. 3a.

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© Biomedical Engineering Society 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Membrane Biology, School of MedicineUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA

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