Impact Performance of Modern Football Helmets
- 1.7k Downloads
Linear impact tests were conducted on 17 modern football helmets. The helmets were placed on the Hybrid III head with the neck attached to a sliding table. The head was instrumented with an array of 3-2-2-2 accelerometers to determine translational acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HIC. Twenty-three (23) different impacts were conducted on four identical helmets of each model at eight sites on the shell and facemask, four speeds (5.5, 7.4, 9.3, and 11.2 m/s) and two temperatures (22.2 and 37.8 °C). There were 1,850 tests in total; 276 established the 1990s helmet performance (baseline) and 1,564 were on the 17 different helmet models. Differences from the 1990s baseline were evaluated using the Student t test (p < 0.05 as significant). Four of the helmets had significantly lower HICs and head accelerations than the 1990s baseline with average reductions of 14.6–21.9% in HIC, 7.3–14.0% in translational acceleration, and 8.4–15.9% in rotational acceleration. Four other helmets showed some improvements. Eight were not statistically different from the 1990s baseline and one had significantly poorer performance. Of the 17 helmet models, four provided a significant reduction in head responses compared to 1990s helmets.
KeywordsProtective headgear Recreation and sport Concussion Helmets Sport equipment
- 1.Bland, M. An introduction to medical statistics (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
- 2.Craig, M. Biomechanics of Jaw Loading in Football Helmet Impacts, PhD Dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 2007.Google Scholar
- 4.Horsch, J. D. Evaluation of Occupant Protection from Responses Measured in Laboratory Tests. SAE 870222. Warrendale, PA: SAE International, 1987.Google Scholar
- 6.NOCSAE 001-04m05. Standard Drop Test Method and Equipment Used in Evaluating the Performance Characteristics of Protective Headgear. www.nocsae.org, 2004.
- 7.NOCSAE 002-98m03. Standard Performance Specification for Newly Manufactured Football Helmets. www.nocsae.org, 1998.
- 8.NOCSAE 021-98m05. Standard Projectile Impact Testing Method and Equipment Used in Evaluating the Performance Characteristics of Protective Headgear, Faceguards or Projectiles. www.nocsae.org, 1998.
- 9.Padgaonkar, A. J., K. W. Kreiger, and A. I. King. Measurement of angular accelerations of a rigid body using linear accelerometers. J. Appl. Mech. 75-APMB:552–556, 1975.Google Scholar
- 16.SAE J855. Human tolerance to impact conditions as related to motor vehicle design. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1980.Google Scholar
- 17.SAE J1733. Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing. Surface Vehicle Information Report. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994.Google Scholar
- 18.SAE J211-1. Instrumentation for Impact Test—Part 1: Electronic Instrumentation. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995.Google Scholar