Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 97–105 | Cite as

Football Helmet Drop Tests on Different Fields Using an Instrumented Hybrid III Head

  • David C. Viano
  • Chris Withnall
  • Michael Wonnacott
Article

Abstract

An instrumented Hybrid III head was placed in a Schutt ION 4D football helmet and dropped on different turfs to study field types and temperature on head responses. The head was dropped 0.91 and 1.83 m giving impacts of 4.2 and 6.0 m/s on nine different football fields (natural, Astroplay, Fieldturf, or Gameday turfs) at turf temperatures of −2.7 to 23.9 °C. Six repeat tests were conducted for each surface at 0.3 m (1′) intervals. The Hybrid III was instrumented with triaxial accelerometers to determine head responses for the different playing surfaces. For the 0.91-m drops, peak head acceleration varied from 63.3 to 117.1 g and HIC15 from 195 to 478 with the different playing surfaces. The lowest response was with Astroplay, followed by the engineered natural turf. Gameday and Fieldturf involved higher responses. The differences between surfaces decreased in the 1.83 m tests. The cold weather testing involved higher accelerations, HIC15 and delta V for each surface. The helmet drop test used in this study provides a simple and convenient means of evaluating the compliance and energy absorption of football playing surfaces. The type and temperature of the playing surface influence head responses.

Keywords

Protective headgear Recreation and sport Concussion Helmets Sport equipment 

References

  1. 1.
    Aoki, H., T. Kohno, H. Fujiya, H. Kato, H. Yatabe, T. Morikawa, and J. Seki. Incidence of injury among adolescent soccer players: a comparative study of artificial and natural grass turfs. Clin. J. Sport Med. 20:1–7, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker, S. W., and M. J. Bell. The laying characteristics on natural turf and synthetic turf surfaces for association football. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 62:9–37, 1989.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bertocci, G. E., M. C. Pierce, E. Deemer, F. Aguel, J. E. Janosky, and E. Vogeley. Using test dummy experiments to investigate pediatric injury risk in simulated short-distance falls. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 157(5):480–486, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Birch, P. Thirty Games a Week—A Study of the Use of Artificial Grass Pitches in Islington and Hackney, Vol. 33. London: The Sports Council, 1975.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bjorneboe, J., R. Bahr, and T. E. Andersen. Risk of injury on third-generation artificial turf in Norwegian professional football. Br. J. Sports Med. 44:794–798, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boden, B. P., D. T. Kirkendall, and W. E. J. Garrett. Concussion incidence in elite college soccer players. Am. J. Sports Med. 26:238–241, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coats, B., and S. S. Margulies. Potential for head injuries in infants from low-height falls. J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 2(5):321–330, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ekstrand, J., M. Hägglund, and C. W. Fuller. Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 2010. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01118.x. [Epub ahead of print].
  9. 9.
    Ekstrand, J., T. Timpka, and M. Hagglund. Risk of injury in elite football played on artificial turf versus natural grass: a prospective two-cohort study. Br. J. Sports Med. 40:975–980, 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fuller, C. W., L. Clarke, and M. G. Molloy. Risk of injury associated with rugby union played on artificial turf. J. Sports Sci. 28:563–570, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fuller, C. W., R. W. Dick, J. Corlette, and R. Schmalz. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 1: Match injuries. Br. J. Sports Med. 41(Suppl. 1):i20–i26, 2007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fuller, C. W., R. W. Dick, J. Corlette, and R. Schmalz. Comparison of the incidence, nature and cause of injuries sustained on grass and new generation artificial turf by male and female football players. Part 2: Training injuries. Br. J. Sports Med. 41(Suppl. 1):i27–i32, 2007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gunatilaka, A. H., S. Sherker, and J. Ozanne-Smith. Comparative performance of playground surfacing materials including conditions of extreme non-compliance. Inj. Prev. 10(3):174–179, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guskiewicz, K. M., N. L. Weaver, D. A. Padua, and W. E. Garrett, Jr. Epidemiology of concussion in collegiate and high school football players. Am. J. Sports Med. 28:643–650, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Laforest, S., Y. Robitaille, D. Lesage, and D. Dorval. Surface characteristics, equipment height, and the occurrence and severity of playground injuries. Inj. Prev. 7(1):35–40, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lewis, L. M., R. Naunheim, J. Standeven, and K. S. Naunheim. Quantitation of impact attenuation of different playground surfaces under various environmental conditions using a tri-axial accelerometer. J. Trauma 35(6):932–935, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mack, M. G., J. J. Sacks, and D. Thompson. Testing the impact attenuation of loose-fill playground surfaces. Inj. Prev. 6(2):141–144, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McNitt, A. S. Synthetic turf in the USA—trends and issues. International Turfgrass Society. Research Journal 10:27–33, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meyers, M. C. Incidence, mechanisms, and severity of game-related college football injuries on FieldTurf versus natural grass: a 3-year prospective study. Am. J. Sports Med. 38:687–697, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meyers, M. C., and B. S. Barnhill. Incidence, causes, and severity of high school football injuries on FieldTurf versus natural grass: a 5-year prospective study. Am. J. Sports Med. 32:1626–1638, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Naunheim, R., M. McGurren, J. Standeven, R. Fucetola, C. Lauryssen, and E. Deibert. Does the use of artificial turf contribute to head injuries? J. Trauma 53(4):691–694, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Naunheim, R., H. Parrott, and J. Standeven. A comparison of artificial turf. J. Trauma 57:1311–1314, 2004; (NHTSA (1998)).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pellman, E. J., D. C. Viano, A. M. Tucker, I. R. Casson, and J. F. Waeckerle. Concussion in professional football: reconstruction of game impacts and injuries. Neurosurgery 53:799–814, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pellman, E. J., D. C. Viano, A. M. Tucker, I. R. Casson, and J. F. Waeckerle. Concussion in professional football: location and direction of helmet impacts. Part 2. Neurosurgery 53:1328–1341, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pellman, E. J., D. C. Viano, C. Withnall, et al. Concussion in professional football: helmet testing to assess impact performance. Part 11. Neurosurgery 58(1):78–96, 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Perez-Soriano, P., S. Llana-Belloch, J. M. Cortell-Tormo, and J. A. Perez-Turpin. Biomechanical factors to be taken into account to prevent injuries and improve sporting performance on artificial turf. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. 4(2):78–92, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    SAE J1733. Sign convention for vehicle crash testing. Surface Vehicle Information Report, Society of Automotive Engineers, December 1994.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    SAE J211-1. Instrumentation for impact test. Part 1. Electronic Instrumentation. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, March 1995.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    SAE J855. Human tolerance to impact conditions as related to motor vehicle design. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, April 1980.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shields, B. J., and G. A. Smith. Epidemiology of cheerleading fall-related injuries in the United States. J. Athl. Train 44(6):578–585, 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shields, B. J., G. A. Smith, and G. A. Smith. The potential for brain injury on selected surfaces used by cheerleaders. J. Athl. Train 44(6):595–602, 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shorten, M. R., and J. A. Himmelsbach. Sports surfaces and the risk of traumatic brain injury. In: Sports Surfaces, edited by B. M. Nigg, G. K. Cole, and D. J. Stefanyshyn. Calgary, AB: University of Calgary, 2003.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Soligard, T., R. Bahr, and T. E. Andersen. Injury risk on artificial turf and grass in youth tournament football. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 2010. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Steffen, K., T. E. Andersen, and R. Bahr. Risk of injury on artificial turf and natural grass in young female football players. Br. J. Sports Med. 41(Suppl. 1):i33–i37, 2007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Theobald, P., L. Whitelegg, L. D. Nokes, and M. D. Jones. The predicted risk of head injury from fall‐related impacts on to third‐generation artificial turf and grass soccer surfaces: a comparative biomechanical analysis. Sports Biomech. 9(1):29–37, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Viano, D. C., and E. J. Pellman. Concussion in professional football: biomechanics of the striking player. Part 8. Neurosurgery 56:266–280, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vidair, C., R. Haas, and R. Schlag. Testing impact attenuation on California playground surfaces made of recycled tires. Int. J. Inj. Control Saf. Promot. 14(4):225–230, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • David C. Viano
    • 1
  • Chris Withnall
    • 2
  • Michael Wonnacott
    • 2
  1. 1.ProBiomechanics LLCBloomfield HillsUSA
  2. 2.Biokinetics and Associates Ltd.OttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations