Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 39, Issue 7, pp 2080–2089 | Cite as

Electrochemical Prevention of Needle-Tract Seeding

Article

Abstract

Needle-tract seeding refers to the implantation of tumor cells by contamination when instruments, such as biopsy needles, are employed to examine, excise, or ablate a tumor. The incidence of this iatrogenic phenomenon is low but it entails serious consequences. Here, as a new method for preventing neoplasm seeding, it is proposed to cause electrochemical reactions at the instrument surface so that a toxic microenvironment is formed. In particular, the instrument shaft would act as the cathode, and the tissues would act as the electrolyte in an electrolysis cell. By employing numerical models and experimental observations reported by researchers on Electrochemical Treatment of tumors, it is numerically showed that a sufficiently toxic environment of supraphysiological pH can be created in a few seconds without excessive heating. Then, by employing an ex vivo model consisting of meat pieces, validity of the conclusions provided by the numerical model concerning pH evolution is confirmed. Furthermore, a simplified in vitro model based on bacteria, instead of tumor cells, is implemented for showing the plausibility of the method. Depending on the geometry of the instrument, suitable current densities will probably range from about 5 to 200 mA/cm2, and the duration of DC current delivery will range from a few seconds to a few minutes.

Keywords

Neoplasm seeding Needle-tract seeding Tumor cell dissemination Electrochemical treatment 

References

  1. 1.
    Castillo, O. A., and G. Vitagliano. Port site metastasis and tumor seeding in oncologic laparoscopic urology. Urology 71:372–378, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davalos, R. V., B. Rubinsky, and L. M. Mir. Theoretical analysis of the thermal effects during in vivo tissue electroporation. Bioelectrochemistry 61:99–107, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dromi, S. A., J. Locklin, and B. J. Wood. Radiofrequency cauterization: an alternative to reduce post-biopsy hemorrhage. Cardiovasc. Intervent. Radiol. 28:681–682, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Finch, J. G., B. Fosh, A. Anthony, E. Slimani, M. Texler, D. P. Berry, A. R. Dennison, and G. J. Maddern. Liver electrolysis: pH can reliably monitor the extent of hepatic ablation in pigs. Clin. Sci. (Lond.) 102:389–395, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gabriel, C., S. Gabriel, and E. Corthout. The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey. Phys. Med. Biol. 41:2231–2249, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gravante, G., S. L. Ong, M. S. Metcalfe, N. Bhardwaj, G. J. Maddern, D. M. Lloyd, and A. R. Dennison. Experimental application of electrolysis in the treatment of liver and pancreatic tumours: principles, preclinical and clinical observations and future perspectives. Surg. Oncol. 2009. doi:10.1016/j.suronc.2009.12.002.
  7. 7.
    Ivorra, A. Tissue electroporation as a bioelectric phenomenon: basic concepts. In: Irreversible Electroporation, edited by B. Rubinsky. Berlin: Springer, 2010, pp. 23–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kotnik, T., D. Miklavcic, and L. M. Mir. Cell membrane electropermeabilization by symmetrical bipolar rectangular pulses. Part II. Reduced electrolytic contamination. Bioelectrochemistry 54:91–95, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kwo, S., and J. C. Grotting. Does stereotactic core needle biopsy increase the risk of local recurrence of invasive breast cancer? Breast J. 12:191–193, 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Laeseke, P. F., T. C. Winter, III, C. L. Davis, K. R. Stevens, C. D. Johnson, F. J. Fronczak, J. G. Webster, and F. T. Lee, Jr. Postbiopsy bleeding in a porcine model: reduction with radio-frequency ablation—preliminary results. Radiology 227:493–499, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu, Y. W., C. L. Chen, Y. S. Chen, C. C. Wang, S. H. Wang, and C. C. Lin. Needle tract implantation of hepatocellular carcinoma after fine needle biopsy. Dig. Dis. Sci. 52:228–231, 2007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moritz, A. R., and F. C. Henriques. Studies of thermal injury: II. The relative importance of time and surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns. Am. J. Pathol. 23:695–720, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nilsson, E., and E. Fontes. Mathematical modelling of physicochemical reactions and transport processes occurring around a platinum cathode during the electrochemical treatment of tumours. Bioelectrochemistry 53:213–224, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nilsson, E., H. von Euler, J. Berendson, A. Thorne, P. Wersall, I. Naslund, A. S. Lagerstedt, K. Narfstrom, and J. M. Olsson. Electrochemical treatment of tumours. Bioelectrochemistry 51:1–11, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parker, B., S. Furman, and D. J. W. Escher. Input signals to pacemakers in a hospital environment. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 167:823–834, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Richards, R. N., and G. E. Meharg. Electrolysis: observations from 13 years and 140,000 hours of experience. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 33:662–666, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saulis, G., R. Lape, R. Praneviciute, and D. Mickevicius. Changes of the solution pH due to exposure by high-voltage electric pulses. Bioelectrochemistry 67:101–108, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Silva, M. A., B. Hegab, C. Hyde, B. Guo, J. A. Buckels, and D. F. Mirza. Needle track seeding following biopsy of liver lesions in the diagnosis of hepatocellular cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut 57:1592–1596, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stigliano, R., L. Marelli, D. Yu, N. Davies, D. Patch, and A. K. Burroughs. Seeding following percutaneous diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma. What is the risk and the outcome? Seeding risk for percutaneous approach of HCC. Cancer Treat. Rev. 33:437–447, 2007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Takamori, R., L. L. Wong, C. Dang, and L. Wong. Needle-tract implantation from hepatocellular cancer: is needle biopsy of the liver always necessary? Liver Transpl. 6:67–72, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vijh, A. K. Electrochemical treatment (ECT) of cancerous tumours: necrosis involving hydrogen cavitation, chlorine bleaching, pH changes, electroosmosis. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 29:663–665, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    von Euler, H., E. Nilsson, J. M. Olsson, and A. S. Lagerstedt. Electrochemical treatment (EChT) effects in rat mammary and liver tissue. In vivo optimizing of a dose-planning model for EChT of tumours. Bioelectrochemistry 54:117–124, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Woitzik, J., and J. K. Krauss. Polyethylene sheath device to reduce tumor cell seeding along the needle tract in percutaneous biopsy. Surg. Endosc. 17:311–314, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xin, Y., F. Xue, B. Ge, F. Zhao, B. Shi, and W. Zhang. Electrochemical treatment of lung cancer. Bioelectromagnetics 18:8–13, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information and Communication TechnologiesUniversitat Pompeu FabraBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations