Viscoelastic Relaxation and Recovery of Tendon
- 835 Downloads
Tendons exhibit complex viscoelastic behaviors during relaxation and recovery. Recovery is critical to predicting behavior in subsequent loading, yet is not well studied. Our goal is to explore time-dependent recovery of these tendons after loading. As a prerequisite, their strain-dependent viscoelastic behaviors during relaxation were also characterized. The porcine digital flexor tendon was used as a model of tendon behavior. Strain-dependent relaxation was observed in tests at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% strain. Recovery behavior of the tendon was examined by performing relaxation tests at 6%, then dropping to a low but nonzero strain level. Results show that the rate of relaxation in tendon is indeed a function of strain. Unlike previously reported tests on the medial collateral ligament (MCL), the relaxation rate of tendons increased with increased levels of strain. This strain-dependent relaxation contrasts with quasilinear viscoelasticity (QLV), which predicts equal time dependence across various strains. Also, the tendons did not recover to predicted levels by nonlinear superposition models or QLV, though they did recover partially. This recovery behavior and behavior during subsequent loadings will then become problematic for both quasilinear and nonlinear models to correctly predict.
KeywordsQuasilinear viscoelasticity (QLV) Nonlinear superposition Tendon
This work was funded by NSF award 0553016. The authors thank Ron McCabe for his technical assistance.
- 6.Crisco, J, S Chelikani, R Brown, S Wolfe. The effect of exercise on ligamentous stiffness of the wrist. J. Hand Surg. 22A: 44-48, 1997.Google Scholar
- 15.Lakes, R. S. Viscoelastic Materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009Google Scholar
- 18.Lieber, RL, ME Leonard, CG Brown, CL Trestik. Frog semitendinosis tendon load-strain and stress-strain properties during passive loading. Am. J. Phys. 261: C86-C92, 1991.Google Scholar
- 28.Provenzano, P, D Heisey, K Hayashi, R Lakes, R Vanderby. Subfailure damage in ligament: a structural and cellular evaluation. J. Appl. Phys. 92: 362-371, 2002.Google Scholar
- 34.van Dommelen, JAW, MM Jolandan, BJ Ivarsson, SA Millington, M Raut, JR Kerrigan, JR Crandall, DR Diduch. Nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of human knee ligaments subjected to complex loading histories. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34(6):1008-1018, 2006. doi: 10.1007/s10439-006-9100-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar