DPIV Prediction of Flow Induced Platelet Activation—Comparison to Numerical Predictions
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Flow induced platelet activation (PA) can lead to platelet aggregation, deposition onto the blood vessel wall, and thrombus formation. PA was thoroughly studied under unidirectional flow conditions. However, in regions of complex flow, where the platelet is exposed to varying levels of shear stress for varying durations, the relationship between flow and PA is not well understood. Numerical models were developed for studying flow induced PA resulting from stress histories along Lagrangian trajectories in the flow field. However, experimental validation techniques such as Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) were not extended to include such models. In this study, a general experimental tool for PA analysis by means of continuous DPIV was utilized and compared to numerical simulation in a model of coronary stenosis. A scaled up (5:1) 84% eccentric and axisymetric coronary stenosis model was used for analysis of shear stress and exposure time along particle trajectories. Flow induced PA was measured using the PA State (PAS) assay. An algorithm for computing the PA level in pertinent trajectories was developed as a tool for extracting information from DPIV measurements for predicting the flow induced thrombogenic potential. CFD, DPIV and PAS assay results agreed well in predicting the level of PA. In addition, the same trend predicted by the DPIV was measured in vitro using the Platelet Activity State (PAS) assay, namely, that the symmetric stenosis activated the platelets more as compared to the eccentric stenosis.
KeywordsDPIV CFD Blood flow Platelet activation Shear stress
This work was supported by the United States Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF) Grant No. 97-00446 (SE and DB), and in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant No.0302275 (DB), The Drown Foundation and the Berman Fund. The author also thanks Dr. Idit Avrahami (Biomedical Engineering, Tel Aviv University) for invaluable advice.
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