Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 493–504 | Cite as

DPIV Prediction of Flow Induced Platelet Activation—Comparison to Numerical Predictions

  • Sagi Raz
  • Shmuel Einav
  • Yared Alemu
  • Danny Bluestein


Flow induced platelet activation (PA) can lead to platelet aggregation, deposition onto the blood vessel wall, and thrombus formation. PA was thoroughly studied under unidirectional flow conditions. However, in regions of complex flow, where the platelet is exposed to varying levels of shear stress for varying durations, the relationship between flow and PA is not well understood. Numerical models were developed for studying flow induced PA resulting from stress histories along Lagrangian trajectories in the flow field. However, experimental validation techniques such as Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) were not extended to include such models. In this study, a general experimental tool for PA analysis by means of continuous DPIV was utilized and compared to numerical simulation in a model of coronary stenosis. A scaled up (5:1) 84% eccentric and axisymetric coronary stenosis model was used for analysis of shear stress and exposure time along particle trajectories. Flow induced PA was measured using the PA State (PAS) assay. An algorithm for computing the PA level in pertinent trajectories was developed as a tool for extracting information from DPIV measurements for predicting the flow induced thrombogenic potential. CFD, DPIV and PAS assay results agreed well in predicting the level of PA. In addition, the same trend predicted by the DPIV was measured in vitro using the Platelet Activity State (PAS) assay, namely, that the symmetric stenosis activated the platelets more as compared to the eccentric stenosis.


DPIV CFD Blood flow Platelet activation Shear stress 



This work was supported by the United States Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF) Grant No. 97-00446 (SE and DB), and in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant No.0302275 (DB), The Drown Foundation and the Berman Fund. The author also thanks Dr. Idit Avrahami (Biomedical Engineering, Tel Aviv University) for invaluable advice.


  1. 1.
    Apel J., R. Paul, S. Klaus, T. Siess, H. Reul 2001 Assessment of hemolysis related quantities in a microaxial blood pump by computational fluid dynamics, Artif Org 25(5):341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barstad R. M., P. Kierulf, K. S. Sakariassen 1996 Collagen induced thrombus formation at the apex of eccentric stenoses–a time course study with non-anticoagulated human blood, Thromb Haemost 75(4):685–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bluestein D., L. Niu, R. T. Schoephoerster, M. K. Dewanjee 1997 Fluid mechanics of arterial stenosis: relationship to the development of mural thrombus, Ann Biomed Eng 25(2):344–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bluestein D., C. Gutierrez, M. Londono, R. T. Schoephoerster 1999 Vortex shedding in steady flow through a model of an arterial stenosis and its relevance to mural platelet deposition, Ann Biomed Eng 27(6):763–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bluestein D., E. Rambod, M. Gharib 2000 Vortex shedding as a mechanism for free emboli formation in mechanical heart valves, J Biomech Eng 122(2):125–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bluestein D., and S. Einav. Techniques in the analysis of stability of pulsatile flow through heart valves. In: Biomechanics Systems Techniques and Applications: Cardio- vascular Techniques, edited by C. T. Leondes. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC, 2001, pp. 4–1:4–39Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bluestein D., S. Einav 1994 Transition to turbulence in pulsatile flow through heart valves–a modified stability approach, J Biomech Eng 116(4):477–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boreda R, Fatemi R. S., Rittgers S. E. 1995 Potential for platelet stimulation in critically stenosed carotid and coronary arteries, J Vasc Invest 1:26–37Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cao J., S. E. Rittgers 1998 Particle motion within in vitro models of stenosed internal carotid and left anterior descending coronary arteries, Ann Biomed Eng 26(2):190–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Glantz S. A. 1997 Primer of Biostatistics, 4th edition ed. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gosman A. D., Ioannides E. 1983 Aspects of computer simulation of liquid-fueled combustors, J. Energy 7(6):482–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hellums J. D., D. M. Peterson, N. A. Stathopoulos, J. L. Moake, and T. D. Giorgio. Studies on the mechanisms of shear-induced platelet activation. In: Cerebral Ischemia and Hemorheology, edited by A. Hartman, and W. Kuschinsky. New York: Springer and Verlag, 1987, pp. 80–89Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holton A. D., E. G. Walsh, B. C. Brott, R. Venugopalan, B. Hershey, Y. Ito, A. Shih, R. Koomullil, A. S. Anayiotos 2005 Evaluation of in-stent stenosis by magnetic resonance phase-velocity mapping in nickel-titanium stents, J Magn Reson Imaging 22(2):248–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jesty J., and Y. Nemerson. The pathways of blood coagulation. In: Williams Hematology, 5th ed., edited by E. Beutler, M. A. L., B.S. Coller, and T.J. Kipps. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp. 1227–1238Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jesty J., W. Yin, P. Perrotta, D. Bluestein 2003 Platelet activation in a circulating flow loop: combined effects of shear stress and exposure time, Platelets 14(3):143–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jesty J., D. Bluestein 1999 Acetylated prothrombin as a substrate in the measurement of the procoagulant activity of platelets: Elimination of the feedback activation of platelets by thrombin, Anal Biochem 272(1):64–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Merrill E. W., E. R. Gilliland, G. Cokelet, H. Shin, A. Britten, R. E. Wells 1963 Rheology of human blood, near and at zero flow, Biophys. J. 3:199–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steinman D. A. 2000 Simulated pathline visualization of computed periodic blood flow patterns, J Biomech 33(5):623–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sukavaneshvar S., Y. Zheng, G. M. Rosa, S. F. Mohammad, K. A. Solen 2000 Thromboembolization associated with sudden increases in flow in a coronary stent ex vivo shunt model, Asaio J 46(3):301–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Willert C. E., M. Gharib 1991 Digital particle image velocimetry, Exp Fluids 10(4):181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sagi Raz
    • 1
  • Shmuel Einav
    • 1
  • Yared Alemu
    • 2
  • Danny Bluestein
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations