Advertisement

African Archaeological Review

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 25–54 | Cite as

Ethnoarchaeology of Domestic Space and Spatial Behaviour Among the Tiv and Ungwai of Central Nigeria

  • Samuel Oluwole Ogundele
Article

Abstract

An attempt has been made in this paper to use ethnoarchaeology to clarify our understanding of aspects of domestic space and spatial behaviour among the Tiv and Ungwai peoples of Central Nigeria. Indeed, the work is in several senses, a comparative study of two ethnolinguistic groups who occupy a similar ecological niche with broadly similar sociopolitical organisation. This mode of organisation is non-centralized in character. In addition, the two peoples had a tradition of hilltop occupation in ancient times. Differences in topography (hilltops for the ancient settlers and lowlands for the present-day peoples) have affected not only the compound layout of each of these ethnic groups but also among other features, the architecture of their houses. Given the limited available archaeological data including charcoal samples for dating, one is not yet able to ascribe specific functions to some of the structures identified on the archaeological sites (hilltops). This will be better addressed as research progresses.

Quelques tentatives ont ete faits dans cet article pour se servir de I’ethnoarchaeologie pour expliquer les divers aspects de l’espace domestique et des caracteres de l’occupation l’espace parmi les Tiv et les Ungwai de la region centrale du Nigeria. En fait, ce travail est en grandes measures une etude comparative des deux groupes ethnolinguistiques occupant le meme crenau ecologique ayant largement la meme organization socio-politique. Le mode d’organisation est du type non centralize. De plus les deux groupes ethniques ont une tradition de l’ocucpation des peuples anciens centres sur le haut de la colline. Des differences en topographie (le haut des collines pour le anciens occupants et la plaine pour les habitants actuels) n’ ont pas seulement eu effets sur la generalite de la maniere dont les concessions des ces groupes ethniques se presentent mais aussi l’architecture de leurs maisons sont parmi les traits particuliers importants. A cause du numbrer restreint de donnees disponibles en ce moment, nous ne sommes pas encore en mesure d’attribuer certaines functions aux structures identifiees aux chantiers archaeologigues (au sommet des collines). Ces functions seront mieux traitees au fur et a mesure que l’on avance dans nos recherches.

Keywords

ethnoarchaeology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agorsah, E. K. (1988). Evaluating spatial behaviour patterns of prehistoric societies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7.Google Scholar
  2. Akiga, S. (1939). Akiga’s Story. Xero’s Copy, University of Ibadan Library.Google Scholar
  3. Andah, B. (1988). African Anthropology, Shaneson Publishers, Ibadan.Google Scholar
  4. Binford, L. (1989). Debating Archaeology. New York.Google Scholar
  5. Bohannan, P., and Bohannan, L. (1953). The Tiv Of Central Nigeria, Stone and Cox Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  6. Bohannan, P. (1954). Tiv Farm and Settlement, Her Royal Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  7. Bohannan, P. (1954). The migration and expansion of the Tiv. Africa 24.Google Scholar
  8. Clarke, D. (1968). Analytical Archaeology, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  9. David, N. (1971). The fulani compound and the archaeologist. World Archaeology 3.Google Scholar
  10. Dorward, D. C. (1971). A Social and Political History Of the Tiv. London.Google Scholar
  11. Dorward, D. C. (1974). Ethnography and administration: A study of Anglo-Tiv working misunderstanding. Journal of African History 15(3).Google Scholar
  12. Downes, R. M. (1971). Tiv Religion, Ibadan University Press, Ibadan.Google Scholar
  13. Erim, E. O. (1990). Songs as sources of history. West African Journal Of Archaeology 20.Google Scholar
  14. Flannery, K. V., and Marcus, J. (1996). Cognitive archaeology In Preucel, R. and Hodder, I. (eds.), Contemporary Archaeology in Theory, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.Google Scholar
  15. Gould, R. A. (1978). Preface, Beyond Analogy in Archaeology Both in Explorations in Ethnoarchaeology, Univerisity of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  16. Hall, M. (1996). Archaeology Africa, James Currey London, Davis Philip Capetown.Google Scholar
  17. Haruna, B. (1992). Personal communication (Ungwai elder).Google Scholar
  18. Hodder, I. (1982). The Present Past, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  19. Huffman, T. N. (1996). Snakes and Crocodiles: Power and Symbolism in Ancient Zimbabwe, Wits University Press, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  20. Huffman, T. N. (2002). Regionality in the Iron Age: The case of the Sotho-Tswana. South African Journal Of Humanities 14.Google Scholar
  21. Netting, R. M. (1968). Hill Farmers Of Nigeria: Cultural Ecology of the Kofyar of the Jos Plateau, University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  22. Ogundele, S. O. (1992). Cultural Resource Management Survey Of Kagara and Its Environs, Research Report Submitted to the Niger State Council for Arts and Culture, Minna, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  23. Ogundele, S. O. (1993). Archaeological reconnaissance and excavations in parts of Tivland. West African Journal of Archaeology 23.Google Scholar
  24. Ogundele, S. O. (1993). Granaries among the Ungwai. Nigerian Heritage 2.Google Scholar
  25. Ogundele, S. O. (1998). Social engineering of field archaeology: The Kagara experience. Nigerian Heritage 7.Google Scholar
  26. Ogundele, S. O. (2004). Rethinking West African Archaeology, John Archers Publishers, Ibadan.Google Scholar
  27. Onwuejeogwu, M. A. (1981). The Social Anthropology of Africa, Heinemann, Ibadan.Google Scholar
  28. Orkar, J. N. (1979). A Precolonial History of the Tiv of Central Nigeria, c. 1500–1800 AD. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Dalhousie University.Google Scholar
  29. Orme, B. (1981). Anthropology for Archaeologists, Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  30. Osae, T. A., and Nwabara, S. N. (1982). A Short History of West Africa (A.D. 1000–1800), Hodder and Stoughton, London.Google Scholar
  31. Preucel, R., and Hodder, I. (1996). Communicating present and past. In Preucel, R. and Hodder, I. (eds.), Contemporary Archaeology in Theory, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.Google Scholar
  32. Renfrew, A. C. (1994). Towards a cognitive archaeology. In Renfrew, A. C and Zubrow, E. (eds.), The Ancient Mind: Elements of Cognitive Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, A., and David, N. (1995). The production of space and the house of Xidi Sukur. Current Anthropology 36(3).Google Scholar
  34. Steinberg, J. (2002). Henrietta Marie Slaveship Wreck. Journal of National Geographic Society 202(2).Google Scholar
  35. Stone, G. D. (1992). Social distance, spatial relations and agricultural production among the Kofyar of Namu district, plateau state, Nigeria. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 11.Google Scholar
  36. Stone, G. D. (1996). The Social and Spatial Organisation of Kofyar Agriculture, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  37. Tringham, R. (1978). Experimentation, ethnoarchaeology and leap frogs in archaeological methodology. In Gould, R. A. (ed.), Explorations in Ethnoarchaeology, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  38. Vansina, J. (1974). The power of systematic doubt in historical inquiry. History in Africa 1.Google Scholar
  39. Waarden, C. V. (1989). The granaries of Vumba: Structural interpretation of a Khami period commoner site. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 8.Google Scholar
  40. Wesler, K. (1998). Historical archaeology in West Africa. In Wesler, K. (ed.), Historical Archaeology in Nigeria, Africa World Press, Trenton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Archaeology & AnthropologyUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations