Advertisement

Longitudinal correspondence between subjective and objective memory in the oldest old: A parallel process model by gender

  • Joseph W. JonesEmail author
  • Elizabeth B. Fauth
  • Marie Ernsth Bravell
  • Boo Johansson
  • Thomas Ledermann
Original Investigation
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

Subjective memory and objective memory performance have predictive utility for clinically relevant outcomes in older adults. Previous research supports certain overlap between objective performance and subjective ratings of memory. These studies are typically cross-sectional or use baseline data only to predict subsequent change. The current study uses a parallel process model to examine concurrent changes in objective memory and subjective memory. We combined data from two population-based Swedish studies of individuals aged 80 + years, assessed every 2 years (OCTO—3 measurement occasions, OCTO-Twin—5 measurement occasions) yielding 607 participants (66% female). The results confirmed that both objective and subjective memory declined over time. The association between the slope of objective memory and subjective memory was statistically significant for women but not for men. This pattern remained after accounting for age and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that, in population-based samples of the oldest old, women seem to show better metacognitive abilities in detecting and reporting changes in memory. Memory changes for men may be better identified by objective performance as their self-assessment of memory changes is not associated with actual change in memory performance.

Keywords

Subjective memory Objective memory Oldest old Parallel processes 

Notes

References

  1. Bassett SS, Folstein MF (1993) Memory complaint, memory performance, and psychiatric diagnosis: a community study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 6:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burmester B, Leathem J, Merrick P (2016) Subjective cognitive complaints and objective cognitive function in aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis of recent cross-sectional findings. Neuropsychol Rev 26:376–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carayanni V, Stylianopoulou C, Koulierakis G, Babatsikou F, Koutis C (2012) Sex differences in depression among older adults: are older women more vulnerable than men in social risk factors? The case of open care centers for older people in Greece. Eur J Ageing 9:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castel AD, Middlebrooks CD, McGillivray S (2015) Monitoring memory in old age: impaired, spared, and aware. In: Dunlosky J, Tauber SK (eds) The Oxford handbook of metamemory, pp 463–483Google Scholar
  5. Crumley JJ, Stetler CA, Horhota M (2014) Examining the relationship between subjective and objective memory performance in older adults: a meta-analysis. Psychol Aging 29:250–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dahl M, Allwood CM, Hagberg B (2009) The realism in older people’s confidence judgments of answers to general knowledge questions. Psychol Aging 24:234–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fauth EB, Gerstorf D, Ram N, Malmberg B (2014) Comparing changes in late-life depressive symptoms across aging, disablement, and mortality processes. Dev Psychol 50:1584–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fiske A, Gatz M (2007) The Apartment Test: validity of a memory measure. Aging Neuropsychol Cognit 14:441–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gagnon M, Dartigues JF, Mazaux JM, Dequae L, Letenneur L, Giroire JM, Barberger-Gateau P (1994) Self-reported memory complaints and memory performance in elderly French community residents: results of the PAQUID Research Program. Neuroepidemiology 13:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hertzog C, Dunlosky J (2011) Metacognition in later adulthood: spared monitoring can benefit older adults’ self-regulation. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 20:167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hertzog C, Dixon RA, Hultsch DF (1990) Relationships between metamemory, memory predictions, and memory task performance in adults. Psychol Aging 5:215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hertzog C, Sinclair SM, Dunlosky J (2010) Age differences in the monitoring of learning: cross-sectional evidence of spared resolution across the adult life span. Dev Psychol 46:939–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hohman TJ, Beason-Held LL, Lamar M, Resnick SM (2011) Subjective cognitive complaints and longitudinal changes in memory and brain function. Neuropsychology 25:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Horhota M, Lineweaver T, Ositelu M, Summers K, Hertzog C (2012) Young and older adults’ beliefs about effective ways to mitigate age-related memory decline. Psychol Aging 27:293–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johansson B, Zarit SH (1995) Prevalence and incidence of dementia in the oldest old: a longitudinal study of a population-based sample of 84–90-year-olds in Sweden. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 10:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johansson B, Allen-Burge R, Zarit SH (1997) Self-reports on memory functioning in a longitudinal study of the oldest old: relation to current, prospective, and retrospective performance. J Gerontol Ser B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 52:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Johansson B, Whitfield K, Pedersen NL, Hofer SM, Ahern F, McClearn GE (1999) Origins of individual differences in episodic memory in the oldest-old: a population-based study of identical and same-sex fraternal twins aged 80 and older. J Gerontol Ser B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 54:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johansson B, Hofer SM, Allaire JC, Maldonado-Molina MM, Piccinin AM, Berg S, Pedersen NL, McClearn GE (2004) Change in cognitive capabilities in the oldest old: the effects of proximity to death in genetically related individuals over a 6-year period. Psychol Aging 19:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jungwirth S, Fischer P, Weissgram S, Kirchmeyr W, Bauer P, Tragl KH (2004) Subjective memory complaints and objective memory impairment in the Vienna-Transdanube aging community. J Am Geriatr Soc 52:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kohout FJ, Berkman LF, Evans DA, Cornoni-Huntley J (1993) Two shorter forms of the CES-D depression symptoms index. J Aging Health 5:179–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mascherek A, Zimprich D (2011) Correlated change in memory complaints and memory performance across 12 years. Psychol Aging 26:884–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McClearn GE, Johansson B, Berg S, Pedersen NL, Ahern F, Petrill SA, Plomin R (1997) Substantial genetic influence on cognitive abilities in twins 80 or more years old. Science 276:1560–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McDonald-Miszczak L, Hertzog C, Hultsch DF (1995) Stability and accuracy of metamemory in adulthood and aging: a longitudinal analysis. Psychol Aging 10:553–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Montejo P, Montenegro M, Fernández-Blázquez MA, Turrero-Nogués A, Yubero R, Huertas E, Maestú F (2014) Association of perceived health and depression with older adults’ subjective memory complaints: contrasting a specific questionnaire with general complaints questions. Eur J Ageing 11:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Neubauer AB, Wahl HW, Bickel H (2013) Depressive symptoms as predictor of dementia versus continuous cognitive decline: a 3-year prospective study. Eur J Ageing 10:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pedro MC, Mercedes MP, Ramón LH, Borja MR (2016) Subjective memory complaints in elderly: relationship with health status, multimorbidity, medications, and use of services in a population-based study. Int Psychogeriatr 28:1903–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Perrig-Chiello P, Perrig WJ, Stahelin HB (2000) Differential aspects of memory self-evaluation in old and very old people. Aging Ment Health 4:130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Radloff LS (1977) The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1:385–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Radloff LS, Teri L (1986) Use of the center for epidemiological studies-depression scale with older adults. Clin Gerontol 5:119–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reid LM, MacLullich AM (2006) Subjective memory complaints and cognitive impairment in older people. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 22:471–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rönnlund M, Nyberg L, Bäckman L, Nilsson LG (2005) Stability, growth, and decline in adult life span development of declarative memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a population-based study. Psychol Aging 20:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saczynski JS, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Auerbach S, Wolf PA, Au R (2010) Depressive symptoms and risk of dementia The Framingham Heart Study. Neurology 75:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Simmons SF, Johansson B, Zarit SH, Ljungquist B, Plomin R, Mcclearn GE (1997) Selection bias in samples of older twins? A comparison between octogenarian twins and singletons in Sweden. J Aging Health 9:553–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sliwinski MJ, Hofer SM, Hall C, Buschke H, Lipton RB (2003) Modeling memory decline in older adults: the importance of preclinical dementia, attrition, and chronological age. Psychol Aging 18:658–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Soderstrom NC, McCabe DP, Rhodes MG (2012) Older adults predict more recollective experiences than younger adults. Psychol Aging 27:1082–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Taylor JL, Miller TP, Tinklenberg JR (1992) Correlates of memory decline: a 4-year longitudinal study of older adults with memory complaints. Psychol Aging 7:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Willis SL, Tennstedt SL, Marsiske M, Ball K, Elias J, Koepke KM, Morris JN, Rebok GW, Unverzagt FW, Stoddard AM, Wright E (2006) Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults. JAMA 296:2805–2814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wilson RS, Barnes LL, De Leon CM, Aggarwal NT, Schneider JS, Bach J, Pilat J, Beckett LA, Arnold SE, Evans DA, Bennett DA (2002) Depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, and risk of AD in older persons. Neurology 59:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zelinski EM, Burnight KP, Lane CJ (2001) The relationship between subjective and objective memory in the oldest old: comparisons of findings from a representative and a convenience sample. J Aging Health 13:248–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zimprich D, Martin M, Kliegel M (2003) Subjective cognitive complaints, memory performance, and depressive affect in old age: a change-oriented approach. Int J Aging Hum Dev 57:339–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  3. 3.Institute of GerontologyJönköping UniversityJönköpingSweden
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  5. 5.Department of Family and Child SciencesFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations