European Journal of Ageing

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 17–27 | Cite as

Accelerated increase and relative decrease in subjective age and changes in attitudes toward own aging over a 4-year period: results from the Health and Retirement Study

  • Ehud Bodner
  • Liat Ayalon
  • Sharon Avidor
  • Yuval Palgi
Original Investigation


The passage of time may force people to adjust their subjective age in response to changes in their attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Although positive associations have been found between well-being and both positive ATOA and younger subjective age, the relationships between changes in these measures have not been examined yet. We expected (1) a decrease in positive ATOA to be associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age and (2) an increase in positive ATOA to be associated with a relative decrease in subjective age. Participants were individuals and their spouses, aged 50 and over, recruited by the Health and Retirement Study, who provided responses to a question concerning one’s subjective age in 2008 and 2012 (n = 4174). A change in subjective age over the two waves was regarded as (1) an accelerated increase if it was greater than 5 years (36.2 % of the sample); (2) a relative decrease (39.1 %), if it was less than the 3 years; (3) no change if it did not comply with criteria 1 or 2 (24.7 %). A decrease in positive ATOA over the two waves resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age, and an increase resulted in a relative decrease in subjective age. Older age and more physical impairments and depressive symptoms in 2012 compared with 2008 were associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age. Our findings emphasize the consequences ATOA might have on subjective age experiences, and the need to improve them.


Attitudes toward own aging Health and Retirement Study Older adults Subjective age 



The HRS is supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA U01AG009740) and the Social Security Administration. The collaborators in this study were supported by the COST IS1402 (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehud Bodner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Liat Ayalon
    • 3
  • Sharon Avidor
    • 4
  • Yuval Palgi
    • 5
  1. 1.The Interdisciplinary Department of Social SciencesBar-Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael
  2. 2.The Department of MusicBar-Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael
  3. 3.Louis and Gabi Weisfeld, School of Social WorkBar-Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael
  4. 4.School of Social and Community SciencesRuppin Academic CenterEmek HeferIsrael
  5. 5.Department of Gerontology and the Center for Research and Study of AgingUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael

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