European Journal of Ageing

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 25–37 | Cite as

How voluntary is the active ageing life? A life-course study on the determinants of extending careers

Original Investigation

Abstract

In Switzerland, as in many other European states, there is an increasing emphasis in public policy on promoting later retirement from the labour market. But this accelerating drive in Swiss policy-making to extend occupational activity does not mean that every worker is currently likely to retire late, nor does it imply that all those who do retire late do so voluntarily. This article uses a life-course approach, first to study the determinants of late retirement, and secondly to analyse whether the decision to postpone retirement is made voluntarily or involuntarily. Both objectives are addressed on the basis of data from the Swiss survey Vivre/Leben/Vivere. The results of logistic regression modelling indicate that, whereas self-employed and more highly educated individuals are more likely to retire late, people with access to private pension funds and workers who have benefited from periods of economic growth have a lower tendency to retire late. Regarding voluntariness, those who are more likely to opt for voluntary late retirement tend to be Swiss citizens, more highly educated, and also benefited from periods of economic expansion, while the self-employed, men and widowed individuals leaving the labour market late tend to do so involuntarily. In conclusion, the article discusses the absence of a social inequality debate in the design of active ageing policies.

Keywords

Late retirement Voluntariness of retirement Active ageing policies Life-course determinants 

References

  1. Ackers L, Dwyer P (2004) Fixed laws, fluid lives: the citizenship status of postretirement migrants in the European Union. Ageing Soc 24(3):451–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balthasar A, Bieri O, Grau P, Künzi K, Guggisberg J (2003) Le passage à la retraite: trajectoires, déterminants et consequences. Office fédéral des assurances sociales, BerneGoogle Scholar
  3. Beehr TA, Glazer S, Nielson NL, Farmer SJ (2000) Work and nonwork predictors of employees’ retirement ages. J Vocat Behav 57(2):206–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blau DM, Gilleskie DB (2001) The effect of health on employment transitions of older men. In: Polachek SW (ed) Worker wellbeing in a changing labor market. JAI Press, London, pp 35–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blossfeld H-P, Buchholz S, Hofäcker D (2006) Globalization, uncertainty and late careers in society. Routledge, London/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bütler M, Huguenin O, Teppa F (2004) What triggers early retirement? Results from Swiss pension funds. Working Paper of the Centre for Economic Policy Research 4394Google Scholar
  7. Cattacin S (2006) Retard, rattrapage, normalisation. L’Etat social suisse face aux défis de transformation de la sécurité sociale. Studien und Quellen 31:49–78Google Scholar
  8. Chauvel L (1998) Le destin des générations, structure sociale et cohortes en France au XX siècle. Presses universitaires de France, ParisGoogle Scholar
  9. De Luca G, Peracchi F (2005) Survey participation in the first wave of SHARE. In: Börsch-Supan A, Jürges H (eds) The survey of health, ageing, and retirement in Europe: methodology. Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Ageing, Mannheim, pp 88–101Google Scholar
  10. Debrand T, Sirven N (2009) Les facteurs explicatifs du départ à la retraite en Europe. Retraite et Société 57(1):35–53Google Scholar
  11. Dobson AJ (1990) An introduction to generalized linear models. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dorn D, Sousa-Poza A (2004) The determinants of early retirement in Switzerland. Working Paper of the Department of Economy of the University of Saint Gallen 98Google Scholar
  13. Dorn D, Sousa-Poza A (2010) Voluntary’ and ‘involuntary’ early retirement: an international analysis. Appl Econ 42(4):427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ebbinghaus B (2006) Reforming early retirement in Europe. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Esping-Andersen G (2011) Pensions at a glance 2011: retirement-income systems in OECD and G20 countries. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  16. Finch N (2014) Why are woman more likely than men to extend paid work? The impact of work–family life history. Eur J Ageing 11(1):31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Foster L, Walker A (2013) Gender and active ageing in Europe. Eur J Ageing 10(1):3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gaillard G, Bilger M, Candolfi P, Chaze JP, Flückiger Y (2003) Analyse des déterminants individuels et institutionnels du départ anticipé à la retraite. Office fédéral des assurances sociales, BerneGoogle Scholar
  19. Guillemard AM, Rein M (1993) Comparative patterns of retirement: recent trends in developed societies. Annu Rev Sociol 19:469–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hofäcker D, Hess M, König S (2016) Delaying retirement: Progress and challenges of active ageing in Europe, the United States and Japan. Palgrave MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  21. Kohli M, Rein M, Guillemard AM, Van Gunsteren H (1991) Time for retirement: Comparative studies of early exit from the labor force. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuehni M, Rosende M, Schoeni C (2013) Maintien en emploi et inégalités de sexe. Lien social et Politiques 69:197–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Le Feuvre N, Kuehni M, Rosende M, Schoeni C (2014) Le genre du “vieillissement actif”: du principe du traitement équitable à la multiplication des injonctions contradictoires. Swiss J Sociol 40(2):307–324Google Scholar
  24. Levy R, Joye D, Guye O, Kaufmann V (1997) Tous égaux?. De la stratification aux représentations, Seismo, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  25. Levy R, Ghisletta P, Le Goff JM, Spini D, Widmer E (2005) Towards an interdisciplinary perspective on the life course. Adv Life Course Res 10:1–411Google Scholar
  26. Lumley T (2013). Survey: analysis of complex survey samples. R package version 3.28-2Google Scholar
  27. Lund T, Villadsen E (2005) Who retires early and why? Determinants of early retirement pension among Danish employees 57–62 years. Eur J Ageing 2(4):275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Madero-Cabib I (2015) The life course determinants of vulnerability in late careers. Longitud Life Course Stud 6(1):88–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Madero-Cabib I (2016) The gendered and liberal retirement regime in Switzerland. In Hofäcker D. Hess M. König S. (eds) Delaying retirement: progress and challenges of active ageing in Europe, the United States and Japan. Palgrave MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  30. Madero-Cabib I, Gauthier JA, Le Goff JM (2015) The influence of interlocked employment-family trajectories on retirement timing. Work, Aging and RetirementGoogle Scholar
  31. Marshall VW, Clarke P, Ballantyne PJ (2001) Instability in the retirement transition: effects on health and well being in a Canadian study. Res Aging 23(4):379–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. OECD (2012) Statistics on average effective age and official age of retirement in OECD countries. http://www.oecd.org/els/emp/ageingandemploymentpolicies.htm. Accessed 25 July 2015
  33. OFS (2011) Indicateurs de la prévoyance vieillesse, résultats des indicateurs clés. Département fédéral de l’intérieur, BerneGoogle Scholar
  34. OFS (2012a) Newsletter No 1 Information Demographiques. Département fédéral de l’intérieur, BerneGoogle Scholar
  35. OFS (2012b) Newsletter No 2 information demographiques. Département fédéral de l’intérieur, BerneGoogle Scholar
  36. OFS (2012c) Cotisations à l’AVS, à l’AI et aux APG. Centre d’information AVS/AI, BerneGoogle Scholar
  37. OFS (2012d) Cotisations des personnes sans activité lucrative à l’AVS, à l’AI et aux APG. Centre d’information AVS/AI, BerneGoogle Scholar
  38. OFS (2012e) La sécurité sociale en Suisse. Centre d’information AVS/AI, BerneGoogle Scholar
  39. Pan W (2001) Akaike’s information criterion in generalized estimating equations. Biometrics 57(1):120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Radl J (2013) Labour market exit and social stratification in Western Europe: the effects of social class and gender on the timing of retirement. Eur Sociol Rev 29(3):654–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. R Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. www.R-project.org. Accessed 25 July 2015
  42. Rosende M, Schoeni C (2012) Seconde partie de carrière, régime de retraite et inégalités de sexe, le cas suisse. Revue française des affaires sociales 2–3:130–147Google Scholar
  43. Siegrist J, Wahrendorf M, von dem Knesebeck O, Jürges H, Börsch-Supan A (2007) Quality of work, well-being, and intended early retirement of older employees—baseline results from the SHARE Study. Eur J Public Health 17(1):62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stähli M, Joye D (2013) New and Emerging Methods: non-respondent surveys: pertinence and feasibility. Surv Stat 68:16–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LIVES Research Centre – Life Course and Inequality Research CentreUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.LIVES Research Centre – Centre for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and VulnerabilityUniversity of Applied Sciences and Arts of Western SwitzerlandCarougeSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations