Advertisement

European Journal of Ageing

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 25–35 | Cite as

Leaving the labour market: the impact of exit routes from employment to retirement on health and wellbeing in old age

  • Björn Halleröd
  • Johan Örestig
  • Mikael Stattin
Original Investigation

Abstract

The study analyses whether and to what degree specific routes into retirement affect older people, i.e. the relationship between heterogeneous exit patterns and post-retirement health and wellbeing. We used longitudinal data from two points in time; data related to t 0 were collected in 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1996 and data related to t 1 were collected in 2002 and 2003 (N = 589). We focused on older people (55+ at t 1) who were employed at t 0 and retired at t 1. We used confirmative factor analysis to identify identical measures of health and wellbeing at both t 0 and t 1. Hence, we were able to control for pre-retirement health and wellbeing when evaluating the effects of different exit routes. These routes were defined as dependence on incomes from sickness benefit, disability pension, part-time pension, unemployment insurance and active labour market programmes. Our initial structural equation model showed a clear relation between exit routes and post-retirement wellbeing. People who prior to retirement were pushed into social benefit programmes related to health and unemployment were significantly worse off as retirees, especially those with health-related benefits. However, these relationships disappeared once pre-retirement wellbeing was added to the model. Our main conclusion is that post-retirement wellbeing first and foremost is a consequence of accumulation of advantages and disadvantages during the life course. Both labour market exit routes and post-retirement wellbeing can be seen as outcomes of this process. There are no independent effects of the retirement process. Judging from our findings, there is no reason to believe that involvement in social security programmes allowing early retirement on health grounds has any additional negative consequences for health and wellbeing.

Keywords

Retirement Health Wellbeing Labour market Longitudinal Structural equation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (Grant 2006-1650). We thank Rune Åberg and other colleagues for helpful comments.

References

  1. Atchley RC (1976) The Sociology of retirement. Halstad Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnet RC, Hyde JS (2001) Women, men, work, and family: an expansionist theory. Am Psychol 56(10):781–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beauducel A, Herzberg PY (2006) On the performance of maximum likelihood versus means and variance adjusted weighted least squares estimation in CFA. Struct Equ Modeling 13(2):186–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bihagen E (2000) The significance of class. Dissertation, Umeå University, UmeåGoogle Scholar
  5. Blane D (2006) The life course, the social gradient, and health. In: Marmot M, Wilkinson R (eds) Social determinants of health, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 54–77Google Scholar
  6. Brockmann H, Müller R, Helmert U (2009) Time to retire – Time to die? A prospective cohort study of the effects of early retirement on long-term survival. Soc Sic Med 69(2):160–164Google Scholar
  7. de Vroom B, Guillemard AM (2002) From externalisation to integration of ageing workers: institutional changes at the end of the work life. In: Andersen JG, Jensen PH (eds) Changing labour markets, welfare policies and citizenship. The Policy Press, Bristol, pp 183–208Google Scholar
  8. Dorfman LT (1995) Health conditions and perceived quality of life retirement. Health Soc Work 20(3):192–200Google Scholar
  9. Dorfman LT, Kohout FJ, Heckert DA (1985) Retirement satisfaction in the rural elderly. Res Aging 7(4):577–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doyle C, Hind P (1998) Occupational stress, burnout and job status in female academics. Gend Work Organ 5(2):67–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duxbury L, Higgins C, Lee C (1994) Work–family conflict: a comparison by gender, family type and perceived control. J Fam Issues 15(3):449–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ebbinghaus B (2006) Reforming early retirement in Europe. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Tokyo, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Erikson R, Goldthorpe JH (1993) The constant flux: a study of class mobility in industrial societies. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Flora DB, Curran PJ (2004) An empirical evaluation of alternative methods of estimation for confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data. Psychol Methods 9(4):466–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Försäkringskassan (2009) Medelpensioneringsålder. Socialförsäkringsrapport 2009:9. Försäkringskassan, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  16. Försäkringskassan (2011) Sjukskrivningsdiagnoser i olika yrken. Socialförsäkringsrapport 2011:17. Försäkringskassan, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  17. Försäkringskassan (2012) Socialförsäkringen i siffror 2012. Försäkringskassan, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  18. Gignac GE (2007) Multi-factor modeling in individual differences research: some recommendations and suggestions. Pers Individ Dif 42(1):37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gustafsson JE, Balke G (1993) General and specific abilities as predictors of school-achievement. Multivariate Behav Res 28(4):407–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gustafsson JE, Stahl PA (2004) STREAMS 3.0 User’s Guide. Multivariate Ware, MölndalGoogle Scholar
  21. Hall EM (1992) Double exposure: the combined impact of the home and work environments on psychosomatic strain in Swedish women and men. Int J Health Serv 22(2):239–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Halleröd B (2009) Ill, worried, or worried sick? Inter-relationships among indicators of wellbeing among older people in Sweden. Ageing Soc 29:563–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Halleröd B, Gustafsson JE (2011) A longitudinal analysis of the relationship between changes in socio-economic status and changes in health. Soc Sci Med 72(1):116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Halleröd B, Seldén D (2012) The multi-dimensional characteristics of wellbeing: how different aspects of wellbeing interact and not interact with each other. Soc Indic Res. doi: 10.1007/s11205-012-0115-8 Google Scholar
  25. Höög J, Stattin M (2001) Förtidspensionärer i ett tioårsperspektiv. En jämförelse av de nya förtidspensionärerna 1988, 1993 och 1998. Arbetslivsinstitutet, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoyle RH (1995) Structural equation modeling. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Hult C, Stattin M, Janlert U, Järvholm B (2010) Timing of retirement and mortality: a cohort study of swedish construction workers. Soc Sci Med 70(10):1480–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hyde M, Ferrie J, Higgs P, Nazroo J (2004) The effects of pre-retirement factors and retirement route on circumstances in retirement: findings from the Whitehall study II. Ageing Soc 24:279–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Idler E, Benyamini Y (1997) Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav 38(1):21–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Idler E, Leventhal H, Mclaughlin J, Leventhal E (2004) In sickness but not in health: self-rating, identity and mortality. J Health Soc Behav 45(3):336–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jæger MM, Holm A (2004) How stressful is retirement? New evidence from a longitudinal, fixed-effects analysis. Centre for Applied Macroeconometrics, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen: CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim JE, Moen P (2001) Is retirement good or bad for subjective wellbeing? Curr Dir Psychol Sci 10(3):83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kohli M, Rein M, Guillemard AM, van Gunsteren H (eds) (1991) Time for retirement: comparative studies of early exit from the labour force. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. Lundberg U, Mårdberg B, Frankenhæuser M (1994) The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age, occupational level, and number of children. Scand J Psychol 35(4):315–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maltby T, de Vroom B, Mirabile ML, Øverbye E (eds) (2004) Ageing and the transition to retirement: A comparative analysis of European welfare states. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  36. McAdams DP, Olson BD, Bradely D (2010) Personality development: continuity and change over the life course. Annu Rev Psychol 61:517–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McGoldrick AE, Cooper CL (1994) Health and ageing as factors in the retirement experience. EAWOP 4(1):1–20Google Scholar
  38. Mein G, Martikainen H, Hemingway S, Stansfeld M, Marmot M (2003) Is retirement good or bad for mental and physical health functioning? Whitehall II longitudinal study of civil servants. J Epidemiol Community Health 57(1):46–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Midanik LT, Soghikian K, Ransom LJ (1995) The effect of retirement on mental health and health behaviors: the Kaiser Permanente retirement study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 50B(1):59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moen P (2011) A life course approach to the third age. In: Carr DC, Komp K (eds) Gerontology in the area of the third age. Implications and next steps. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Nordenmark M, Stattin M (2009) Psychosocial wellbeing and reasons for retirement in Sweden. Ageing Soc 29:413–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Phillipson C (2004) Work and retirement transitions: changing sociological and social policy contexts. Soc Pol Soc 3(2):155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pinquart M, Schindler I (2007) Changes in life satisfaction in the transition to retirement: a latent–class approach. Psychol Aging 22(3):442–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Quandagno J (2005) Aging and the life-course. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Rijs KJ, Cozijnsen R, Deeg DJH (2012) The effect of retirement and age at retirement on self-perceived health after three years of follow-up in Dutch 55–64-year-olds. Ageing Soc 32:281–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salokangas RK, Joukamaa M (1991) Physical mental health changes in retirement age. Psychother Psychosom 55(2–4):100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Smith DB, Moen P (2004) Retirement satisfaction for retirees and their spouses: do gender and the retirement decision-making process matter? J Fam Issues 25(2):262–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Socailstyrelsen (2010) Folkhälsorapport 2010. Socialstyrelsen, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  49. Stattin M (2009) Den äldre arbetskraften—deltagande, attityder och arbetsförhållanden (should i stay or should i go?). Umeå University, UmeåGoogle Scholar
  50. van Solinge H (2007) Health change in retirement: a longitudinal study among older workers in the Netherlands. Res Aging 29(3):225–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vogel J, Häll L (eds) (2006) Äldres levnadsförhållanden: arbete, ekonomi, hälsa och sociala nätverk 1980–2003. Umeå Universitet/Statistiska centralbyrån, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  52. Wadensjö E, Sjögren G (2000) Arbetslinjen för äldre i praktiken. Institutet för social forskning, Stockholm universitetGoogle Scholar
  53. Wallman T, Svärdsudd K (2010) Do disability pensioners have a higher mortality rate than non-pensioners? Adjusting for potential confounding: a commentary on Hult, Stattin, Janlert, and Järvholm. Soc Sci Med 70:1487–1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wallman T, Wedel H, Johansson S, Rosengren A, Eriksson H, Welin L, Svardsudd K (2006) The prognosis for individuals on disability retirement: an 18-year mortality follow-up study of 6887 men and women sampled from the general population. BMC Public Health 6:103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Westerlund H, Kivimäki M, Singh-Manoux A, Melchior M, Ferrie JE, Pentti J, Jokela M, Leineweber C, Goldberg M, Zins M, Vahtera J (2009) Self-rated health before and after retirement in France (GAZEL): a cohort study. Lancet 374(9705):1889–1896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Westerlund H, Vahtera J, Ferrie JE, Singh-Manoux A, Pentti J, Melchior M et al (2010) Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study. Brit Med J 341:c6149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wilensky H (2002) Rich democracies: political economy, public policy and performance. University for California Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  58. Wu CH, Yao G (2007) Examining the relationship between global and domain measures of quality of life by three factor structure models. Soc Indic Res 84(2):189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Björn Halleröd
    • 1
  • Johan Örestig
    • 2
  • Mikael Stattin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Work Life ScienceUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUmeå University SwedenUmeåSweden

Personalised recommendations