Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Challenges and perspectives in the development of paper-based lateral flow assays

  • 80 Accesses

Abstract

Lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been introduced and developed over the last half century. This technology is widely used as a tool for diagnosis in several fields such as environment, food quality and healthcare. Point-of-care (POC) diagnosis using LFAs has been attracting attention of the research community, particularly aiming for the development of a platform that can evaluate of biological markers in bodily fluids such as saliva and urine. The existence of a disease or the pregnancy can be determined by a test device, before further investigation and medical treatment. LFAs make use of a disposable test strip, which can provide diagnosis result on the spot within minutes. Thus, LFAs is a promising alternative of preliminary diagnosis for laboratory instruments that are costly, time consuming and require trained personnel. This paper includes a brief overview of the conventional LFAs: material selection based on its roles and characteristics, working principles, fundamentals, applications, and design criteria. We mainly discuss the technical challenges in both engineering and biochemical aspects and recommends possible solutions. We identify current research trends and provide perspectives of advanced technologies for enhancing assay performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Ahmed S, Bui M-PN, Abbas A (2016) Paper-based chemical and biological sensors: engineering aspects. Biosens Bioelectr 77:249–263

  2. Bahadır EB, Sezgintürk MK (2016) Lateral flow assays: principles, designs and labels. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 82:286–306

  3. Bell JM, Cameron FK (1905) The flow of liquids through capillary spaces. J Phys Chem 10(8):658–674

  4. Benzi R, Succi S, Vergassola M (1992) The lattice Boltzmann equation: theory and applications. Phys Rep 222(3):145–197

  5. Bogdanovic J et al (2006) Rapid detection of fungal α-amylase in the work environment with a lateral flow immunoassay. J Allergy Clin Immunol 118(5):1157–1163

  6. Bosanquet CH (1923) LV. On the flow of liquids into capillary tubes. Lond Edinb Dublin Philos Mag J Sci 45(267):525–531

  7. Byrnes S, Thiessen G, Fu E (2013) Progress in the development of paper-based diagnostics for low-resource point-of-care settings. Bioanalysis 5(22):2821–2836

  8. Cao Q, Liang B, Tu T, Wei J, Fang L, Ye X (2019) Three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic electrochemical integrated devices (3D-PMED) for wearable electrochemical glucose detection. RSC Adv 9(10):5674–5681. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ra09157a

  9. Carrell C et al (2019) Beyond the lateral flow assay: a review of paper-based microfluidics. Microelectr Eng 206:45–54

  10. Cate DM, Adkins JA, Mettakoonpitak J, Henry CS (2015) Recent developments in paper-based microfluidic devices. Anal Chem 87(1):19–41

  11. Chen H, Cogswell J, Anagnostopoulos C, Faghri M (2012) A fluidic diode, valves, and a sequential-loading circuit fabricated on layered paper. Lab Chip 12(16):2909–2913. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2lc20970e

  12. Chen X et al (2014) Development of a rapid and sensitive quantum dot-based immunochromatographic strip by double labeling PCR products for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in food. Food Control 46:225–232

  13. Chen Y et al (2016a) Near-infrared fluorescence-based multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of four antibiotic residue families in milk. Biosens Bioelectr 79:430–434

  14. Chen Y et al (2016b) A dual-readout chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test for multiplex and ultrasensitive detection of disease biomarkers in real samples. Nanoscale 8(33):15205–15212. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6nr04017a

  15. Cho E, Mohammadifar M, Choi S (2017) A single-use, self-powered, paper-based sensor patch for detection of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. Micromachines 8(9):265

  16. Choi S (2016) Powering point-of-care diagnostic devices. Biotechnol Adv 34(3):321–330

  17. Choi JR et al (2016) Polydimethylsiloxane-paper hybrid lateral flow assay for highly sensitive point-of-care nucleic acid testing. Anal Chem 88(12):6254–6264

  18. Clark KD, Zhang C, Anderson JL (2016) Sample preparation for bioanalytical and pharmaceutical analysis. Anal Chem 88(23):11262–11270

  19. Cummins BM, Chinthapatla R, Ligler FS, Walker GM (2017) Time-dependent model for fluid flow in porous materials with multiple pore sizes. Anal Chem 89(8):4377–4381

  20. Dalirirad S, Steckl AJ (2019) Aptamer-based lateral flow assay for point of care cortisol detection in sweat. Sens Actuators B Chem 283:79–86

  21. Darcy H (1856) Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon. Dalmont, Paris

  22. Dharmaraja S et al (2013) Programming paper networks for point of care diagnostics. In: Microfluids, BioMEMS, and medical microsystems XI, vol 8615. International Society for Optics and Photonics. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2006138

  23. Di Risio S, Yan N (2007) Piezoelectric ink-jet printing of horseradish peroxidase: effect of ink viscosity modifiers on activity. Macromol Rapid Commun 28(18–19):1934–1940

  24. Dineva MA, Candotti D, Fletcher-Brown F, Allain J-P, Lee H (2005) Simultaneous visual detection of multiple viral amplicons by dipstick assay. J Clin Microbiol 43(8):4015

  25. Drain PK et al (2014) Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings. Lancet Infect Dis 14(3):239–249

  26. Duan D et al (2015) Nanozyme-strip for rapid local diagnosis of Ebola. Biosens Bioelectr 74:134–141

  27. Dungchai W, Chailapakul O, Henry CS (2010) Use of multiple colorimetric indicators for paper-based microfluidic devices. Anal Chim Acta 674(2):227–233

  28. Edwards KA, Baeumner AJ (2006) Optimization of DNA-tagged dye-encapsulating liposomes for lateral-flow assays based on sandwich hybridization. Anal Bioanal Chem 386(5):1335–1343

  29. Fang X, Wei S, Kong J (2014) Paper-based microfluidics with high resolution, cut on a glass fiber membrane for bioassays. Lab Chip 14(5):911–915. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3lc51246k

  30. Fenton EM, Mascarenas MR, López GP, Sibbett SS (2009) Multiplex lateral-flow test strips fabricated by two-dimensional shaping. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1(1):124–129

  31. Fratzl M et al (2018) Magnetic two-way valves for paper-based capillary-driven microfluidic devices. ACS Omega 3(2):2049–2057

  32. Fridley GE, Le HQ, Fu E, Yager P (2012) Controlled release of dry reagents in porous media for tunable temporal and spatial distribution upon rehydration. Lab Chip 12(21):4321–4327. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2lc40785j

  33. Frohnmeyer E et al (2019) Aptamer lateral flow assays for rapid and sensitive detection of cholera toxin. Analyst 144(5):1840–1849. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8an01616j

  34. Fu E, Ramsey SA, Kauffman P, Lutz B, Yager P (2011) Transport in two-dimensional paper networks. Microfluid Nanofluidics 10(1):29–35

  35. Fu E, Liang T, Spicar-Mihalic P, Houghtaling J, Ramachandran S, Yager P (2012) Two-dimensional paper network format that enables simple multistep assays for use in low-resource settings in the context of malaria antigen detection. Anal Chem 84(10):4574–4579

  36. Fung K-K, Chan CP-Y, Renneberg R (2009) Development of enzyme-based bar code-style lateral-flow assay for hydrogen peroxide determination. Anal Chim Acta 634(1):89–95

  37. Ginzbourg I, d’Humières D (1996) Local second-order boundary methods for lattice Boltzmann models. J Stat Phys 84(5):927–971

  38. Grace W, Zaman MH (2012) Low-cost tools for diagnostic and monitoring HIV infection in low-resource settings. Bull World Health Organ 90(12):914–920

  39. Guan L, Cao R, Tian J, McLiesh H, Garnier G, Shen W (2014) A preliminary study on the stabilization of blood typing antibodies sorbed into paper. Cellulose 21(1):717–727

  40. Hamraoui A, Nylander T (2002) Analytical approach for the Lucas–Washburn equation. J Colloid Interface Sci 250(2):415–421

  41. Hamraoui A, Thuresson K, Nylander T, Eskilsson K, Yaminsky V (2001) Dynamic wetting and dewetting by aqueous solutions containing amphiphilic compounds. In: Razumas V, Lindman B, Nylander T (eds) Surface and colloid science. Progress in colloid and polymer science, vol 116. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 113–119. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-44941-8_18

  42. Hao Y et al (2014) A naphthalimide-based azo colorimetric and ratiometric probe: synthesis and its application in rapid detection of cyanide anions. Anal Methods 6(8):2478–2483. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ay41931b

  43. Hayes B, Murphy C, Crawley A, O’Kennedy R (2018) Developments in point-of-care diagnostic technology for cancer detection. Diagnostics 8(2):39

  44. He JP, Katis NI, Eason WR, Sones LC (2018) Rapid multiplexed detection on lateral-flow devices using a laser direct-write technique. Biosensors 8(4):97

  45. Hosseini S, Vázquez-Villegas P, Martínez-Chapa SO (2017) Paper and fiber-based bio-diagnostic platforms: current challenges and future needs. Appl Sci 7(8):863

  46. Hu J et al (2013) Oligonucleotide-linked gold nanoparticle aggregates for enhanced sensitivity in lateral flow assays. Lab Chip 13(22):4352–4357. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3lc50672j

  47. Hu J et al (2014) Advances in paper-based point-of-care diagnostics. Biosens Bioelectr 54:585–597

  48. Hu L-M et al (2017) Advantages of time-resolved fluorescent nanobeads compared with fluorescent submicrospheres, quantum dots, and colloidal gold as label in lateral flow assays for detection of ractopamine. Biosens Bioelectr 91:95–103

  49. Ichikawa N, Satoda Y (1994) Interface dynamics of capillary flow in a tube under negligible gravity condition. J Colloid Interface Sci 162(2):350–355

  50. Ismail A et al (2016) Colorimetric analysis of the decomposition of S-nitrosothiols on paper-based microfluidic devices. Analyst 141(22):6314–6320. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6an01439a

  51. Jain S et al (2015) Performance of an optimized paper-based test for rapid visual measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in fingerstick and venipuncture samples. PLoS One 10(5):e0128118

  52. Jauset-Rubio M et al (2016) Ultrasensitive, rapid and inexpensive detection of DNA using paper based lateral flow assay. Sci Rep 6:37732

  53. Jawaid W et al (2013) Development and validation of the first high performance-lateral flow immunoassay (HP-LFIA) for the rapid screening of domoic acid from shellfish extracts. Talanta 116:663–669

  54. Jiang X, Fan ZH (2016) Fabrication and operation of paper-based analytical devices. Ann Rev Anal Chem 9(1):203–222

  55. Jiang T et al (2016) Sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using Pt–Au bimetal nanoparticles with peroxidase-like amplification. Biosens Bioelectr 77:687–694

  56. Juntunen E, Myyryläinen T, Salminen T, Soukka T, Pettersson K (2012) Performance of fluorescent europium(III) nanoparticles and colloidal gold reporters in lateral flow bioaffinity assay. Anal Biochem 428(1):31–38

  57. Kasetsirikul S, Buranapong J, Srituravanich W, Kaewthamasorn M, Pimpin A (2016) The development of malaria diagnostic techniques: a review of the approaches with focus on dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic methods. Malar J 15(1):358

  58. Kavosi B, Hallaj R, Teymourian H, Salimi A (2014) Au nanoparticles/PAMAM dendrimer functionalized wired ethyleneamine–viologen as highly efficient interface for ultra-sensitive α-fetoprotein electrochemical immunosensor. Biosens Bioelectr 59:389–396

  59. Khan MS et al (2010) Biosurface engineering through ink jet printing. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 75(2):441–447

  60. Koo CKW, He F, Nugen SR (2013) An inkjet-printed electrowetting valve for paper-fluidic sensors. Analyst 138(17):4998–5004. https://doi.org/10.1039/C3AN01114C

  61. Koponen A et al (1998) Permeability of three-dimensional random fiber webs. Phys Rev Lett 80(4):716–719

  62. Kunkel HG, Tiselius A (1951) Electrophoresis of proteins on filter paper. J Gen Physiol 35(1):89–118

  63. Lavi B, Marmur A, Bachmann J (2008) Porous media characterization by the two-liquid method: effect of dynamic contact angle and inertia. Langmuir 24(5):1918–1923

  64. Lee J-H et al (2015) Multiplex diagnosis of viral infectious diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, and hepatitis A) based on point of care lateral flow assay using engineered proteinticles. Biosens Bioelectr 69:213–225

  65. Lee S, Mehta S, Erickson D (2016) Two-color lateral flow assay for multiplex detection of causative agents behind acute febrile illnesses. Anal Chem 88(17):8359–8363

  66. Li et al (2009) Development of up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral-flow assay for rapidly quantitative detection of hepatitis B surface antibody. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 63(2):165–172

  67. Li X, Tian J, Shen W (2010) Progress in patterned paper sizing for fabrication of paper-based microfluidic sensors. Cellulose 17(3):649–659

  68. Li X et al (2012) A fast and sensitive immunoassay of avian influenza virus based on label-free quantum dot probe and lateral flow test strip. Talanta 100:1–6

  69. Li X, Zwanenburg P, Liu X (2013) Magnetic timing valves for fluid control in paper-based microfluidics. Lab Chip 13(13):2609–2614. https://doi.org/10.1039/C3LC00006K

  70. Liang L et al (2016) Aptamer-based fluorescent and visual biosensor for multiplexed monitoring of cancer cells in microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. Sens Actuators B Chem 229:347–354

  71. Liu C et al (2011) Lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for sensitive pesticide detection by using Fe3O4 nanoparticle aggregates as color reagents. Anal Chem 83(17):6778–6784

  72. Liu H, Li X, Crooks RM (2013) Paper-based SlipPAD for high-throughput chemical sensing. Anal Chem 85(9):4263–4267

  73. Liu Z et al (2018) Liquid wicking behavior in paper-like materials: mathematical models and their emerging biomedical applications. Microfluid Nanofluidics 22(11):132

  74. Lucas R (1918) Ueber das Zeitgesetz des kapillaren Aufstiegs von Flüssigkeiten. Kolloid-Zeitschrift 23(1):15–22

  75. Lutz BR, Trinh P, Ball C, Fu E, Yager P (2011) Two-dimensional paper networks: programmable fluidic disconnects for multi-step processes in shaped paper. Lab Chip 11(24):4274–4278

  76. Lutz B, Liang T, Fu E, Ramachandran S, Kauffman P, Yager P (2013) Dissolvable fluidic time delays for programming multi-step assays in instrument-free paper diagnostics. Lab Chip 13(14):2840–2847

  77. Mandal P, Dey R, Chakraborty S (2012) Electrokinetics with “paper-and-pencil” devices. Lab Chip 12(20):4026–4028. https://doi.org/10.1039/C2LC40681K

  78. Mao X, Ma Y, Zhang A, Zhang L, Zeng L, Liu G (2009) Disposable nucleic acid biosensors based on gold nanoparticle probes and lateral flow strip. Anal Chem 81(4):1660–1668

  79. Martin AJP, Synge RLM (1941) A new form of chromatogram employing two liquid phases. Biochem J 35(12):1358

  80. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Carrilho E, Thomas SW, Sindi H, Whitesides GM (2008) Simple telemedicine for developing regions: camera phones and paper-based microfluidic devices for real-time, off-site diagnosis. Anal Chem 80(10):3699–3707

  81. Martinez WA et al (2010) Programmable diagnostic devices made from paper and tape. Lab Chip 10(19):2499–2504. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0lc00021c

  82. Mashamba-Thompson PT, Jama AN, Sartorius B, Drain KP, Thompson MR (2017) Implementation of point-of-care diagnostics in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa: perspectives of key stakeholders. Diagnostics 7(1):3

  83. Mdluli P et al (2014) Gold nanoparticle based tuberculosis immunochromatographic assay: the quantitative ESE quanti analysis of the intensity of test and control lines. Biosens Bioelectr 54:1–6

  84. Medina A, Pérez-Rosales C, Pineda A, Higuera FJ (2001) Imbibition in pieces of paper with different shapes. Revista Mexicana de Fisica 47:537–541

  85. Mendez S et al (2010) Imbibition in porous membranes of complex shape: quasi-stationary flow in thin rectangular segments. Langmuir 26(2):1380–1385

  86. Millipore (2013) Rapid lateral flow test strip: considerations for product development, Millipore Corporation

  87. Millot G, Voisin B, Loiez C, Wallet F, Nseir S (2017) The next generation of rapid point-of-care testing identification tools for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Ann Transl Med 5(22):451

  88. Mora MF et al (2019) Patterning and modeling three-dimensional microfluidic devices fabricated on a single sheet of paper. Anal Chem 91(13):8298–8303

  89. Morales-Narváez E, Naghdi T, Zor E, Merkoçi A (2015) Photoluminescent lateral-flow immunoassay revealed by graphene oxide: highly sensitive paper-based pathogen detection. Anal Chem 87(16):8573–8577

  90. Morbioli GG, Mazzu-Nascimento T, Stockton AM, Carrilho E (2017) Technical aspects and challenges of colorimetric detection with microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs)—a review. Anal Chim Acta 970:1–22

  91. Mu X et al (2015) A paper-based skin patch for the diagnostic screening of cystic fibrosis. Chem Commun 51(29):6365–6368. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cc00717h

  92. Nakhal RS, Wood D, Woodhouse C, Creighton SM (2012) False-positive pregnancy tests following enterocystoplasty. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol 119(3):366–368

  93. Nguyen N-T, Wu Z (2004) Micromixers—a review. J Micromech Microeng 15(2):R1–R16

  94. Noh H, Phillips ST (2010) Fluidic timers for time-dependent, point-of-care assays on paper. Anal Chem 82(19):8071–8078

  95. O’Farrell B (2015) Lateral flow technology for field-based applications—basics and advanced developments. Topics Companion Anim Med 30(4):139–147

  96. O’Keeffe M et al (2003) Preliminary evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay device for screening urine samples for the presence of sulphamethazine. J Immunol Methods 278(1):117–126

  97. Oh YK, Joung H-A, Han HS, Suk H-J, Kim M-G (2014) A three-line lateral flow assay strip for the measurement of C-reactive protein covering a broad physiological concentration range in human sera. Biosens Bioelectr 61:285–289

  98. Osborn JL, Lutz B, Fu E, Kauffman P, Stevens DY, Yager P (2010) Microfluidics without pumps: reinventing the T-sensor and H-filter in paper networks. Lab Chip 10(20):2659–2665. https://doi.org/10.1039/c004821f

  99. Park J-M, Jung H-W, Chang YW, Kim H-S, Kang M-J, Pyun J-C (2015) Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay based on Pt nanoparticle with peroxidase activity. Anal Chim Acta 853:360–367

  100. Park J, Shin JH, Park J-K (2016) Pressed paper-based dipstick for detection of foodborne pathogens with multistep reactions. Anal Chem 88(7):3781–3788

  101. Parolo C, Medina-Sánchez M, de la Escosura-Muñiz A, Merkoçi A (2013) Simple paper architecture modifications lead to enhanced sensitivity in nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassays. Lab Chip 13(3):386–390. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2lc41144j

  102. Qian YH, D’Humières D, Lallemand P (1992) Lattice BGK models for Navier–Stokes equation. Europhys Lett (EPL) 17(6):479–484

  103. Qiu W et al (2015) Carbon nanotube-based lateral flow biosensor for sensitive and rapid detection of DNA sequence. Biosens Bioelectr 64:367–372

  104. Report MR (2018) Lateral flow assay market by application, product, technique, end user—global forecast to 2023. [Online]. https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/lateral-flow-assay-market-167205133.html. Accessed 3 July 2019

  105. Rezk AR, Qi A, Friend JR, Li WH, Yeo LY (2012) Uniform mixing in paper-based microfluidic systems using surface acoustic waves. Lab Chip 12(4):773–779. https://doi.org/10.1039/C2LC21065G

  106. Rideal EK (1922) CVIII. On the flow of liquids under capillary pressure. Lond Edinb Dublin Philos Mag J Sci 44(264):1152–1159

  107. Rooz (2010). The power of paper: elegant solutions in diagnostics [online]. https://miter.mit.edu/articlepower-paper-elegant-solutions-diagnostics/. Accessed 2 July 2019

  108. Sajid M, Kawde A-N, Daud M (2015) Designs, formats and applications of lateral flow assay: a literature review. J Saudi Chem Soc 19(6):689–705

  109. Salminen T, Juntunen E, Khanna N, Pettersson K, Talha SM (2016) Anti-HCV immunoassays based on a multiepitope antigen and fluorescent lanthanide chelate reporters. J Virol Methods 228:67–73

  110. Sanger F (1988) Sequences, sequences, and sequences. Ann Rev Biochem 57(1):1–29

  111. Shen J et al (2015) Immunochromatographic assay for quantitative and sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen using highly luminescent quantum dot-beads. Talanta 142:145–149

  112. Shiroma LY, Santhiago M, Gobbi AL, Kubota LT (2012) Separation and electrochemical detection of paracetamol and 4-aminophenol in a paper-based microfluidic device. Anal Chim Acta 725:44–50

  113. Sicard B et al (2015) Tools for water quality monitoring and mapping using paper-based sensors and cell phones. Water Res 70:360–369

  114. Siebold A, Nardin M, Schultz J, Walliser A, Oppliger M (2000) Effect of dynamic contact angle on capillary rise phenomena. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 161(1):81–87

  115. Singer JM, Plotz CM (1956) The latex fixation test: I. Application to the serologic diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 21(6):888–892

  116. Song S et al (2014) Multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for mycotoxin determination. Anal Chem 86(10):4995–5001

  117. Stefano GB, Kream RM (2018) The micro-hospital: 5G telemedicine-based care. Med Sci Monit Basic Res 24:103–104

  118. Takalkar S, Baryeh K, Liu G (2017) Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. Biosens Bioelectr 98:147–154

  119. Tang R et al (2017) Improved analytical sensitivity of lateral flow assay using sponge for HBV nucleic acid detection. Sci Rep 7(1):1360

  120. Toley BJ, McKenzie B, Liang T, Buser JR, Yager P, Fu E (2013) Tunable-delay shunts for paper microfluidic devices. Anal Chem 85(23):11545–11552

  121. Torre LA et al (2018) Ovarian cancer statistics, 2018. CA Cancer J Clin 68(4):284–296

  122. Tsai T-T, Huang T-H, Ho NY-J, Chen Y-P, Chen C-A, Chen C-F (2019) Development of a multiplex and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. Sci Rep 9(1):15679

  123. Urteaga R, Elizalde E, Berli CLA (2018) Transverse solute dispersion in microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). Analyst 143(10):2259–2266. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8an00149a

  124. Wang ZL (2012) Self-powered nanosensors and nanosystems. Adv Mater 24(2):280–285

  125. Wang Y, Xu H, Wei M, Gu H, Xu Q, Zhu W (2009) Study of superparamagnetic nanoparticles as labels in the quantitative lateral flow immunoassay. Mater Sci Eng C 29(3):714–718

  126. Wang W, Wu W-Y, Wang W, Zhu J-J (2010) Tree-shaped paper strip for semiquantitative colorimetric detection of protein with self-calibration. J Chromatogr A 1217(24):3896–3899

  127. Washburn EW (1921) The dynamics of capillary flow. Phys Rev 17(3):273–283

  128. Weaver AA et al (2013) Paper analytical devices for fast field screening of beta lactam antibiotics and antituberculosis pharmaceuticals. Anal Chem 85(13):6453–6460

  129. Wei X et al (2016) Microfluidic distance readout sweet hydrogel integrated paper-based analytical device (μDiSH-PAD) for visual quantitative point-of-care testing. Anal Chem 88(4):2345–2352

  130. Wen H-W, Borejsza-Wysocki W, DeCory TR, Durst RA (2005) Development of a competitive liposome-based lateral flow assay for the rapid detection of the allergenic peanut protein Ara h1. Anal Bioanal Chem 382(5):1217–1226

  131. Whelan WJ (1995) The advent of paper chromatography. FASEB J 9(2):287–288

  132. Whitaker S (1986) Flow in porous media I: a theoretical derivation of Darcy’s law. Transp Porous Media 1(1):3–25

  133. Wide L (1969) Early diagnosis of pregnancy. Lancet 294(7626):863–864

  134. Wong R, Tse H (2009) Lateral flow immunoassay, 1st edn. Humana Press, NY, USA, p 224

  135. Wu T et al (2018) Enhanced lateral flow assay with double conjugates for the detection of exosomes. Sci China Chem 61(11):1423–1429

  136. Xiao G et al (2019) A wearable, cotton thread/paper-based microfluidic device coupled with smartphone for sweat glucose sensing. Cellulose 26(7):4553–4562

  137. Rivas L, Medina-Sánchez M, de la Escosura-Muñiz A, Merkoçi A (2014) Improving sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow assays by using wax-printed pillars as delay barriers of microfluidics. Lab Chip 14(22):4406–4414. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4lc00972j

  138. Yager P et al (2006) Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health. Nature 442(7101):412–418

  139. Yager P, Domingo GJ, Gerdes J (2018) Point-of-care diagnostics for global health. Ann Rev Biomed Eng 10(1):107–144

  140. Yan J et al (2014) Effect of physiochemical property of Fe3O4 particle on magnetic lateral flow immunochromatographic assay. Sens Actuators B Chem 197:129–136

  141. Yang Y, Noviana E, Nguyen MP, Geiss BJ, Dandy DS, Henry CS (2017) Paper-based microfluidic devices: emerging themes and applications. Anal Chem 89(1):71–91

  142. Yetisen K, Akram MS, Lowe CR (2013) Paper-based microfluidic point-of-care diagnostic devices. Lab Chip 13(12):2210–2251. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3lc50169h

  143. Ying N et al (2017) Lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor for sensitive detection of microRNAs based on the dual amplification strategy of duplex-specific nuclease and hybridization chain reaction. PLoS One 12(9):e0185091

  144. Yonekita T et al (2013) Development of a novel multiplex lateral flow assay using an antimicrobial peptide for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Microbiol Methods 93(3):251–256

  145. Yu WW, White IM (2013) Inkjet-printed paper-based SERS dipsticks and swabs for trace chemical detection. Anal Artic 138(4):1020–1025

  146. Zhang D et al (2018) Quantitative and ultrasensitive detection of multiplex cardiac biomarkers in lateral flow assay with core-shell SERS nanotags. Biosens Bioelectr 106:204–211

  147. Zhao Y et al (2016) Rapid multiplex detection of 10 foodborne pathogens with an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay. Sci Rep 6:21342

  148. Zhong ZW, Wu RG, Wang ZP, Tan HL (2015) An investigation of paper based microfluidic devices for size based separation and extraction applications. J Chromatogr B 1000:41–48

  149. Zhou M (2015) Recent progress on the development of biofuel cells for self-powered electrochemical biosensing and logic biosensing: a review. Electroanalysis 27(8):1786–1810

  150. Zweig G, Whitaker JR, Block RJ (1971) Paper chromatography and electrophoresis: paper chromatography by J. Sherman and G. Zweig (paper chromatography and electrophoresis). Academic Press, Cambridge

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support of the Australian Research Council (DP180100055) and higher degree research scholarships GUIPRS and GUPRS Scholarships to S.K. from the Griffith University.

Author information

Correspondence to Nam-Trung Nguyen.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kasetsirikul, S., Shiddiky, M.J.A. & Nguyen, N. Challenges and perspectives in the development of paper-based lateral flow assays. Microfluid Nanofluid 24, 17 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-020-2321-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Paper-based microfluidics
  • Lateral flow assays
  • Point-of-care diagnosis