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Parametric analysis of wax printing technique for fabricating microfluidic paper-based analytic devices (µPAD) for milk adulteration analysis

  • Muhammad YounasEmail author
  • Ammara Maryam
  • Mushtaq Khan
  • Ahmad Ahsan Nawaz
  • Syed Husian Imran Jaffery
  • Muhammad Nabeel Anwar
  • Liaqat Ali
Research Paper
  • 100 Downloads

Abstract

Accurate prediction of hydrophobic–hydrophilic channel barriers is essential in the fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices. This research presents a detailed parametric analysis of wax printing technique for fabricating µPADs. Utilizing commonly used Grade 1 filter paper, experimental results show that the wax spreading in the paper porous structure depends on the initially deposited wax line thickness, a threshold melting temperature and melting time. Initial width of the printed line has a linear relationship with the final width of the barrier; however, a less pronounced effect of temperature was observed. Based on the spreading behavior of the molten wax at different parameters, a generalized regression model has been developed and validated experimentally. The developed model accurately predicts wax spreading in Whatman filter paper: a non-uniform distribution of pores and fibers. Finally, tests were carried out for calorimetric detection of commonly used adulterants present in milk samples.

Keywords

Paper based Microfluidics Fabrication Wax printing Analytical devices Milk adulterants 

List of symbols

L

Average wax spreading from the edges of printed line

FHC

Final hydrophilic channel width

I

Width of printed line

IHC

Initial hydrophilic channel width

T

Melting temperature

D

Pore size

T

Melting time

Γ

Surface tension

η

Viscosity

ESI

Electronic supplementary information

µm

Micrometer

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank our lab colleagues Nauman Khan and Zia-ur-Rehman for their handful of suggestions during the lab work.

Funding

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Supplementary material

10404_2019_2208_MOESM1_ESM.docx (11.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12012 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Younas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ammara Maryam
    • 1
  • Mushtaq Khan
    • 1
  • Ahmad Ahsan Nawaz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Syed Husian Imran Jaffery
    • 1
    • 3
  • Muhammad Nabeel Anwar
    • 1
  • Liaqat Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (SMME)National University of Science and Technology (NUST)IslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Biotechnologisches Zentrum, Technische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany
  3. 3.School of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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