Double-line particle focusing induced by negative normal stress difference in a microfluidic channel

  • Sei Hyun Yang
  • Doo Jin Lee
  • Jae Ryoun YounEmail author
  • Young Seok SongEmail author
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Particle motion in non-Newtonian microfluidics


Particles suspended in diluted viscoelastic fluids migrate in the transverse direction of the fluid flow towards equilibrium locations determined by spatial normal stress distributions across the cross-section of microfluidic channels. Polymer solutions with a negative first normal stress difference exhibit unexpected fluid behaviors such as material contraction after die extrusion and filament compression of semiflexible biopolymer gels in abrupt shear flow. The lateral particle migration was investigated in a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) viscoelastic fluid with a negative first normal-stress difference. Unlike common viscoelastic fluids with positive normal stress differences, double-line particle focusing was identified in a microfluidic channel, which was caused by the negative first normal stress difference. More importantly, unique particle migration with different-sized particles in a microchannel was observed in which bigger particles were double-line focused along the channel walls while smaller particles were single-line focused at the center. A new particle focusing mechanism was suggested to demonstrate this unique double line focusing behavior of particles in the viscoelastic fluids.


Negative first normal-stress difference Viscoelastic particle focusing Normal stress component Hydroxypropyl cellulose 



The authors acknowledge the support from the soft chemical materials research center for organic–inorganic multi-dimensional structure, which is funded by Gyeonggi Regional Research center Program (GRRC Dankook 2016-B03). Also, it was supported by the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program, which is funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MI, Korea) [10052641]. The authors are grateful for these supports.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute of Advanced Materials (RIAM), Department of Materials Science and EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Ceramic Fiber and Composite Materials CenterKorea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and TechnologyJinju-siRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Fiber System EngineeringDankook UniversityYonginRepublic of Korea

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