Advertisement

An efficient micromixer actuated by induced-charge electroosmosis using asymmetrical floating electrodes

  • 359 Accesses

  • 4 Citations

Abstract

Efficient microfluid mixing is an important process for various microfluidic-based biological and chemical reactions. Herein we propose an efficient micromixer actuated by induced-charge electroosmosis (ICEO). The microchannel of this device is easy to fabricate for its simple straight channel structure. Importantly, unlike previous design featuring complicated three-dimensional conducting posts, we utilize the simpler asymmetrical planar floating-electrodes to induce asymmetrical microvortices. For evaluating the mixing performance of this micromixer, we conducted a series of simulations and experiments. The mixing performance was quantified using the mixing index, specifically, the mixing efficiency can reach 94.7% at a flow rate of 1500 µm/s under a sinusoidal wave with a peak voltage of 14 V and a frequency of 400 Hz. Finally, we compared this micromixer with different micromixing devices using a comparative mixing index, demonstrating that this micromixer remains competitive among these existing designs. Therefore, the method proposed herein can offer a simple solution for efficient fluids mixing in microfluidic systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Alipanahrostami M, Ramiar A (2017) High efficiency micromixing technique using periodic induced charge electroosmotic flow: a numerical study. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 524:53–65

  2. Chang C-C, Yang R-J (2007) Electrokinetic mixing in microfluidic systems. Microfluid Nanofluid 3:501–525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-007-0178-z

  3. Chen JK, Yang RJ (2007) Electroosmotic flow mixing in zigzag microchannels. Electrophoresis 28:975–983. https://doi.org/10.1002/elps.200600470

  4. Chiu P-H, Chang C-C, Yang R-J (2012) Electrokinetic micromixing of charged and non-charged samples near nano-microchannel junction. Microfluid Nanofluid 14:839–844. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-012-1116-2

  5. Daghighi Y, Li D (2013) Numerical study of a novel induced-charge electrokinetic micro-mixer. Anal Chim Acta 763:28–37

  6. Feng X, Ren Y, Jiang H (2013) An effective splitting-and-recombination micromixer with self-rotated contact surface for wide Reynolds number range applications. Biomicrofluidics 7:54121

  7. Feng X, Ren Y, Jiang H (2014) Effect of the crossing-structure sequence on mixing performance within three-dimensional micromixers. Biomicrofluidics 8:412

  8. Gorkin R et al (2010) Centrifugal microfluidics for biomedical applications. Lab Chip 10:1758

  9. Harnett CK, Templeton J, Dunphyguzman KA, Senousy YM, Kanouff MP (2008) Model based design of a microfluidic mixer driven by induced charge electroosmosis. Lab Chip 8:565–572

  10. Hong CC, Choi JW, Ahn CH (2004) A novel in-plane passive microfluidic mixer with modified Tesla structures. Lab Chip 4:109–113

  11. Huang SH, Wang SK, Khoo HS, Tseng FG (2007) AC electroosmotic generated in-plane microvortices for stationary or continuous fluid mixing. Sens Actuators B Chem 125:326–336

  12. Ickmans K et al (2013) Association between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and physical activity level in women with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Rehabil Res Dev 50:795

  13. Jain M, Yeung A, Nandakumar K (2009) Induced charge electro osmotic mixer: obstacle shape optimization. Biomicrofluidics 3:368

  14. Jain M, Yeung A, Nandakumar K (2010) Analysis of electrokinetic mixing techniques using comparative. Mixing Index Micromach 1:36–47

  15. Jegatheeswaran S, Ein-Mozaffari F, Wu J (2017) Efficient mixing of yield-pseudoplastic fluids at low Reynolds numbers in the chaotic SMX static mixer. Chem Eng J 317:215–231

  16. Johansson L, Johansson S, Nikolajeff F, Thorslund S (2009) Effective mixing of laminar flows at a density interface by an integrated ultrasonic transducer. Lab Chip 9:297

  17. Kai Z, Mi XJ, Yu MZ (2012) Design of super-efficient mixer based on induced charge electroosmotic. Therm Sci 16:1534–1538

  18. Liu W, Ren Y, Tao Y, Yao B, Liu N, Wu Q (2017) A universal design of field-effect-tunable microfluidic ion diode based on a gating cation-exchange nanoporous membrane. Phys Fluids 29:112001

  19. Lu X et al (2013) Detecting and tracking nosocomial methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus using a microfluidic SERS. Biosens Anal Chem 85:2320

  20. Matsubara K, Narumi T (2016) Microfluidic mixing using unsteady electroosmotic vortices produced by a staggered array of electrodes. Chem Eng J 288:638–647

  21. Ng WY, Goh S, Lam YC, Yang C, Rodríguez I (2009) DC-biased AC-electroosmotic and AC-electrothermal flow mixing in microchannels. Lab Chip 9:802–809

  22. Ozcelik A, Ahmed D, Xie Y, Nama N, Qu Z, Nawaz AA, Huang TJ (2014) An acoustofluidic micromixer via bubble inception and cavitation from microchannel sidewalls. Anal Chem 86:5083–5088. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac5007798

  23. Ren Y et al (2017) Flexible particle flow-focusing in microchannel driven by droplet-directed induced-charge electroosmosis. Electrophoresis 39:597–607

  24. Sasaki N, Kitamori T, Kim H-B (2006) AC electroosmotic micromixer for chemical processing in a microchannel. Lab Chip 6:550–554. https://doi.org/10.1039/B515852D

  25. Tafti EY, Kumar R, Cho HJ (2008) Effect of laminar velocity profile variation on mixing in microfluidic devices: the sigma micromixer. Appl Phys Lett 93:190

  26. Wu Z, Li D (2008) Micromixing using induced-charge electrokinetic flow. Electrochim Acta 53:5827–5835

  27. Wu Y, Ren Y, Tao Y, Hou L, Hu Q, Jiang H (2016) A novel micromixer based on the alternating current-flow field effect transistor. Lab Chip 17:186

  28. Wu Y, Ren Y, Jiang H (2017) Enhanced model-based design of a high-throughput three dimensional micromixer driven by alternating-current electrothermal flow. Electrophoresis 38:258–269

  29. Xia HM, Wan SY, Shu C, Chew YT (2005) Chaotic micromixers using two-layer crossing channels to exhibit fast mixing at low Reynolds numbers. Lab Chip 5:748

  30. Xia HM, Wang ZP, Koh YX, May KT (2010) A microfluidic mixer with self-excited ‘turbulent’ fluid motion for wide viscosity ratio applications. Lab Chip 10:1712

  31. Xie Y, Ahmed D, Lapsley MI, Lin S-CS, Nawaz AA, Wang L, Huang TJ (2012) Single-shot characterization of enzymatic reaction constants K m and k cat by an acoustic-driven bubble-based fast micromixer. Anal Chem 84:7495–7501. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac301590y

  32. Yasui T et al (2011) Microfluidic baker’s transformation device for three-dimensional rapid mixing. Lab Chip 11:3356–3360

  33. Ye LJ, Li YM, Zhang AL (2009) Fast mixing digital micro-fluids in PDMS microchannel based on surface acoustic wave. In: Symposium on Piezoelectricity, Acoustic waves, and Device applications. IEEE, pp 19–23

  34. Yesiloz G, Boybay MS, Ren CL (2017) Effective thermo-capillary mixing in droplet microfluidics integrated with a microwave heater. Anal Chem 89:1978–1984. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04520

  35. Zhao H, Bau HH (2007) Microfluidic chaotic stirrer utilizing induced-charge electro-osmosis. Phys Rev E 75:066217

  36. Zhou B et al (2015) Design and fabrication of magnetically functionalized flexible micropillar arrays for rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing. Lab Chip 15:2125–2132

  37. Zhu GP, Nguyen NT (2012) Rapid magnetofluidic mixing in a uniform magnetic field. Lab Chip 12:4772

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 11672095, no. 11702035 and no. 11702075), the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 51521003), and the Opening fund of State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics. We are also grateful to Haizhen Sun, Mingyu Xiao, Yupan Wu and Weiyu Liu for their assistance in the simulation and helpful results discussions.

Author information

Correspondence to Yukun Ren or Hongyuan Jiang.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the topical collection “2018 International Conference of Microfluidics, Nanofluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip, Beijing, China” guest edited by Guoqing Hu, Ting Si and Zhaomiao Liu.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 235 KB)

Supplementary material 2 (MP4 5361 KB)

Supplementary material 2 (MP4 5361 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, K., Ren, Y., Hou, L. et al. An efficient micromixer actuated by induced-charge electroosmosis using asymmetrical floating electrodes. Microfluid Nanofluid 22, 130 (2018) doi:10.1007/s10404-018-2153-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Induced-charge electroosmosis
  • Micromixing
  • Asymmetrical floating-electrodes
  • Asymmetrical microvortices
  • Comparative mixing index