Advertisement

Pressure-driven flow through PDMS-based flexible microchannels and their applications in microfluidics

  • A. Raj
  • Pearlson P. A. Suthanthiraraj
  • A. K. Sen
Review
  • 235 Downloads

Abstract

Flexible microchannels have soft walls which undergo deformation under the influence of fluid flow. The dimensional and flexural similarity of flexible microchannels make them ideal candidates for mimicking biological structures such as blood vessels and air pathway in lungs. The analysis of fluid flow and the dynamics of interaction of cells through flexible arteries provide valuable insights about cardiovascular-related diseases. Flexible microchannels can be instrumental in the in vitro investigation of such diseases. This review discusses the recent developments in pressure-driven flow through flexible microchannels and their applications. Here we present the existing theoretical models that predict the deformation and pressure-flow characteristics of flexible microchannels and the corresponding experimental validations. We compare the models for laminar flow of Newtonian fluids through flexible microchannels with their corresponding experimental validation and enlist their limitations. We discuss in detail the various applications of flexible microchannels and their relevance in cell mechanophenotyping, micropumps, microflow stabilizers, and organ-on-chip devices. The insight into the flow dynamics provided herein will extend using flexible microchannels to develop organs-on-chip and other microfluidic applications.

Notes

References

  1. Adzima BJ, Velankar SS (2006) Pressure drops for droplet flows in microfluidic channels. J Micromech Microeng 16(8):1504–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anoop R, Sen AK (2015) Capillary flow enhancement in rectangular polymer microchannels with a deformable wall. Phys Rev E 92(1):013024MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker H, Gärtner C (2000) Polymer microfabrication methods for microfluidic analytical applications. Electrophoresis 21(1):12–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beech JP, Tegenfeldt JO (2008) Tuneable separation in elastomeric microfluidics devices. Lab Chip 8(5):657–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown XQ, Ookawa K, Wong JY (2005) Evaluation of polydimethylsiloxane scaffolds with physiologically-relevant elastic moduli: Interplay of substrate mechanics and surface chemistry effects on vascular smooth muscle cell response. Biomaterials 26(16):3123–3129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruus H (2008) Theoretical microfluidics. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Bufler H (1971) Theory of elasticity of a multilayered medium. J Elast 1(2):125–143MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chakraborty D, Prakash JR, Friend J, Yeo L (2012) Fluid-structure interaction in deformable microchannels. Phys Fluids 24(10):102002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Y, Zhang L, Chen G (2008) Fabrication, modification, and application of poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chips. Electrophoresis 29(9):1801–1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheung P, Toda-Peters K, Shen AQ (2012) In situ pressure measurement within deformable rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices. Biomicrofluidics 6(2):026501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christov IC, Cognet V, Shidhore TC, Stone HA (2018) Flow rate-pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels. J Fluid Mech 841:267–286MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Darby SG, Moore MR, Friedlander TA et al (2010) A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems. Lab Chip 10(23):3218–3226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eroshenko N, Ramachandran R, Yadavalli VK, Rao RR (2013) Effect of substrate stiffness on early human embryonic stem cell differentiation. J Biol Eng 7(1):7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. George D, Anoop R, Sen AK (2015) Elastocapillary powered manipulation of liquid plug in microchannels. Appl Phys Lett 107(26):261601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gervais T, El-Ali J, Günther A, Jensen KF (2006) Flow-induced deformation of shallow microfluidic channels. Lab Chip 6(4):500–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guan G, Chen PCY, Peng WK et al (2012) Real-time control of a microfluidic channel for size-independent deformability cytometry. J Micromech Microeng 22(10):105037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hardy BS, Uechi K, Zhen J, Kavehpour HP (2009) The deformation of flexible PDMS microchannels under a pressure driven flow. Lab Chip 9(7):935–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ho KKY, Lee LM, Liu AP (2016) Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics. Sci Rep 6:32912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holden MA, Kumar S, Beskok A, Cremer PS (2003) Microfluidic diffusion diluter: bulging of PDMS microchannels under pressure-driven flow. J Micromech Microeng 13(3):412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hosokawa K, Hanada K, Maeda R (2002) A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices. J Micromech Microeng 12(1):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang SB, Zhao Y, Chen D et al (2014) A clogging-free microfluidic platform with an incorporated pneumatically driven membrane-based active valve enabling specific membrane capacitance and cytoplasm conductivity characterization of single cells. Sens Actuator B-Chem 190:928–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huh D, Fujioka H, Tung Y-C et al (2007) Acoustically detectable cellular-level lung injury induced by fluid mechanical stresses in microfluidic airway systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(48):18886–18891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huh D, Matthews BD, Mammoto A et al (2010) Reconstituting organ-level lung functions on a chip. Science 328(5986):1662–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ichikawa N, Hosokawa K, Maeda R (2004) Interface motion of capillary-driven flow in rectangular microchannel. J Colloid Interface Sci 280(1):155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Iyer V, Raj A, Annabattula RK, Sen AK (2015) Experimental and numerical studies of a microfluidic device with compliant chambers for flow stabilization. J Micromech Microeng 25(7):075003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jang K-J, Suh K-Y (2010) A multi-layer microfluidic device for efficient culture and analysis of renal tubular cells. Lab Chip 10(1):36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim YW, Yoo JY (2008) The lateral migration of neutrally-buoyant spheres transported through square microchannels. J Micromech Microeng 18(6):065015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumar N, George D, Sajeesh P et al (2016) Development of a solenoid actuated planar valveless micropump with single and multiple inlet-outlet arrangements. J Micromech Microeng 26(7):075013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee C-H, Hsiung S-K, Lee G-B (2007) A tunable microflow focusing device utilizing controllable moving walls and its applications for formation of micro-droplets in liquids. J Micromech Microeng 17(6):1121–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li H, Olsen MG (2006) MicroPIV measurements of turbulent flow in square microchannels with hydraulic diameters from 200 µm to 640 µm. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 27(1):123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lighthill MJ (1968) Pressure-forcing of tightly fitting pellets along fluid-filled elastic tubes. J Fluid Mech 34(1):113–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maria MS, Rakesh PE, Chandra TS, Sen AK (2017) Capillary flow-driven microfluidic device with wettability gradient and sedimentation effects for blood plasma separation. Sci Rep 7:43457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mazumdar JN (1992) Biofluid mechanics. World Sci, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Michel B, Bernard A, Bietsch A, Delamarche E (2001) Printing meets lithography: soft approaches to high-resolution printing. IBM J Res Dev 45(5):697–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Palchesko RN, Zhang L, Sun Y, Feinberg AW (2012) Development of polydimethylsiloxane substrates with tunable elastic modulus to study cell mechanobiology in muscle and nerve. PLoS One 7(12):e51499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pang Y, Kim H, Liu Z, Stone H (2014) A soft microchannel decreases polydispersity of droplet generation. Lab Chip 14(20):4029–4034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Raj A, Sen AK (2016) Flow-induced deformation of compliant microchannels and its effect on pressure—flow characteristics. Microfluid Nanofluidics 20(2):31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Raj A, Sen AK (2018) Entry and passage behavior of biological cells in a constricted compliant microchannel. RSC Adv 8(37):20884–20893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raj A, Halder R, Sajeesh P, Sen AK (2016) Droplet generation in a microchannel with a controllable deformable wall. Microfluid Nanofluidics 20(7):102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raj MK, DasGupta S, Chakraborty S (2017) Hydrodynamics in deformable microchannels. Microfluid Nanofluidics 21(4):70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ravetto A, Hoefer IE, den Toonder JMJ, Bouten CVC (2016) A membrane-based microfluidic device for mechano-chemical cell manipulation. Biomed Microdevices 18(2):31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reddy SP, Samy RA, Sen AK (2016) Interaction of elastocapillary flows in parallel microchannels across a thin membrane. Appl Phys Lett 109(14):141601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shidhore TC, Christov IC (2017) Static response of deformable microchannels: A comparative modelling study. J Phys Condens Matter 30(5):054002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shin M, Matsuda K, Ishii O et al (2004) Endothelialized networks with a vascular geometry in microfabricated poly (dimethyl siloxane). Biomed Microdevices 6(4):269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh S, Kumar N, George D, Sen AK (2015) Analytical modeling, simulations and experimental studies of a PZT actuated planar valveless PDMS micropump. Sens Actuators A Phys 225:81–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sneha Maria M, Rakesh PE, Chandra TS, Sen AK (2016) Capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for blood plasma separation and on-chip glucose detection. Biomicrofluidics 10(5):054108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tice JD, Song H, Lyon AD, Ismagilov RF (2003) Formation of droplets and mixing in multiphase microfluidics at low values of the Reynolds and the capillary numbers. Langmuir 19(22):9127–9133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Timoshenko S, Woinowsky-Krieger S (1959) Theory of plates and shells, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  49. Walter N, Micoulet A, Seufferlein T, Spatz JP (2011) Direct assessment of living cell mechanical responses during deformation inside microchannel restrictions. Biointerphases 6(3):117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Whitesides GM (2006) The origins and the future of microfluidics. Nature 442(7101):368–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xiang J, Cai Z, Zhang Y, Wang W (2016) A micro-cam actuated linear peristaltic pump for microfluidic applications. Sens Actuators A Phys 251:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yang B, Lin Q (2009) A compliance-based microflow stabilizer. J Microelectromech Syst 18(3):539–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang W, Choi DS, Nguyen YH et al (2013) Studying cancer stem cell dynamics on PDMS surfaces for microfluidics device design. Sci Rep 3:2332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang X, Chen Z, Huang Y (2015) A valve-less microfluidic peristaltic pumping method. Biomicrofluidics 9(1):014118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zheng Y, Fujioka H, Bian S et al (2009) Liquid plug propagation in flexible microchannels: a small airway model. Phys Fluids 21(7):071903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zheng Y, Shojaei-Baghini E, Azad A et al (2012) High-throughput biophysical measurement of human red blood cells. Lab Chip 12(14):2560–2567CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations