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Towards chip prototyping: a model for droplet formation at both T and X-junctions in dripping regime

  • Axel Vansteene
  • Jean-Philippe Jasmin
  • Siméon Cavadias
  • Clarisse Mariet
  • Gérard Cote
Research Paper
  • 169 Downloads

Abstract

Segmented flows in both T and X-junction glass microchannels are investigated. The effective pressure domain of use of the microchips are compared for two chemical systems. After studying the flow patterns and current empirical equations proposed in the literature, a new empirical equation is validated for both T and X-junctions allowing the prediction of not only the domain of use of the microchip in terms of flow rates knowing the viscosities of the two phases but also the droplets diameter, volume, spacing, and specific interfacial area. Specific interfacial area could be optimized using the model within our specific microsystems, and a maximum of 10,000 m−1 is determined. Ensuing the definition of the model, several insights in the way to optimize segmented flows for different purposes are discussed, i.e., for the production of monodisperse populations of droplets and mass transfer optimization.

Keywords

Solvent extraction Microfluidics Lab-on-chip Hydrodynamics Modelling Uranium Europium 

List of symbols

(αlag, αfill, β)

Parameters defined in Glawdel et al. (Eq. 11) and Chen et al. (Eq. 12) comprehensive models

\(\bar {\beta }\)

Parameter defined in Sessoms et al. (Eq. 14) for the velocity of the unconfined droplets

(χ1, χ2, χ3)

Fitting parameters of our empirical equation

Ca

Capillary number

Ca′

Modified capillary number

DMDBDTMA

N,N′-Dimethyl N,N′-dibutyl tetradecylmalonamide

f

Droplet generation frequency (Hz)

FF

Focalized flux-junction

fps

Frame per second (s−1)

h

Channel height (m)

H

Distance between the inlet of the dispersed phase and the orifice in FF-junctions

ID

Internal diameter (m)

L

Length of a microchannel (m)

l

Diameter/Length of the droplet/plug (m)

O

Oil

P

Pressure (Pa)

PEEK

Polyether ether ketone

Q

Flow-rate (m3 s−1)

S

Surface (m2)

s

Spacing between consecutive droplets (m)

Sint,spec

Specific interfacial area (m−1)

T

T-junction

U

Average superficial velocity (m s−1)

v

Velocity (m s−1)

W

Water

w

Channel width (m)

X

Cross junction

Γ

Height-to-width ratio of the junction/aspect ratio h/w

δP

Variation of inlet pressure (Pa)

Δr/r

Relative error (%)

η

Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

λ

Viscosity ratio ηdc

Λ

Dispersed-to-continuous channel width ratio wd/wc

σ

Interfacial tension (N m−1)

Φ

Flow-rate ratio Qd/Qc

Subscripts

c

Continuous phase

channel

Outlet microchannel

d

Dispersed phase

exp

Experimental

max

Maximum value

mean

Average value

min

Minimum value

or

Orifice in FF-junctions

plot

Related to the droplet or plug

targeted

Targeted value

th

Theoretical

tot

Total

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission. We would like to thank Amar Basu (Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Michigan) for providing us the DMV software we used to acquire droplets shapes and velocities.

Supplementary material

10404_2018_2080_MOESM1_ESM.docx (614 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 614 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Den-Service d’Etudes Analytiques et de Réactivité des Surfaces (SEARS), CEAUniversité Paris-SaclayGif-sur-YvetteFrance
  2. 2.Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, Chimie ParisTech-CNRSPSL Research UniversityParisFrance
  3. 3.UPMC-Univ Paris 06ParisFrance

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