The recent advancements in \(bubble\, logic\) computation based on two-phase microfluidics bring into light the possibility that the use of bubbles in microfluidic devices can carry on-chip process control. In this paper, four computational models implementing two different AND–OR logic gates, one logic NOT, and a Flip-Flop are presented. More specifically, the numerical approach used combines the Navier–Stokes equation with the phase-field method. All reported models are based on generally accepted and already experimentally tested chip designs. A parametric T-junction model has been designed to be connected to the logic gate models as a droplet generator. The wider framework on the logic gate behavior in different operating conditions reveals the relevance of these models in the microfluidics chip design. Moreover, the advantage of using a simulation platform for the investigation of electrical circuits equivalent of microfluidic processes is illustrated. In this context, the focus of this paper was not only the definition of CFD models of logic gates, but the attempt to establish a workbench easily accessible for the study of the two-phase microfluidic processes.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Anandan P, Schembri S, Bucolo M (2012) Computational modeling of droplet based logic circuits. In: AIP conference proceedings international conference of numerical analysis and applied mathematics (ICNAAM), vol 1479(1), pp 220–223, Kos, Greece, September 19–25
Belsterling CA (1971) Fluidic systems design. Wiley, New York
Bruus H (2008) Theoretical microfluidics, Oxford master series in condensed matter physics. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Carlson A, Do-Quang M, Amberg G (2010) Droplet dynamics in a bifurcating channel. Int J Multiphase Flow 36:397–405
Cheow LF, Yobas L, Kwong DL (2007) Digital microfluidics: droplet based logic gates. Appl Phys Lett 90–054107:1–2
Cristini V, Tan YC (2004) Theory and numerical simulation of droplet dynamics in complex flows—a review. Lab on Chip 4:257–264
Duffy DC, Cooper McDonald J, Schueller OJA, Whitesides GM (1998) Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly (dimethylsiloxane). Anal Chem 70:4974–4984
Epstein IR (2007) Can droplets and bubbles think? Science 315:775–776
Erickson D (2005) Towards numerical prototyping of labs-on-chip: modeling for integrated microfluidic devices. Microfluidics Nanofluidics 1:301–318
Foster K, Parker GA (1970) Fluidics: components and circuits. Wiley, New York
Garstecki P, Fuerstman MJ, Stone HA, Whitesides GM (2006) Formation of droplets and bubbles in a microfluidic T-junction-scaling and mechanism of break-up. Lab Chip 6:437–446
Groisman A, Enzelberger M, Quake SR (2003) Microfluidic memory and control devices. Science 300:955–957
Labrot V, Schindler M et al (2009) Extracting the hydrodynamic resistance of droplets from their behavior in microchannel networks. Biomicrofluidics 3(012804):1–16
Liu J, Nguyen NT (2010) Numerical simulation of droplet-based microfluidics—a review. Micro Nanosyst 2(3):193–201
Menech (2006) Modeling of droplet break up in a microfluidic T-shaped junction with phase-field model. Phys Rev E 73(031505):1–9
Nguyen NT, Wereley S (2002) Fundamentals and applications of microfluidics. In: Integrated microsystems series. Artech House
Prakash M, Gershenfeld N (2007a) Microfluidic bubble logic. Science 315:832–835
Prakash M, Gershenfeld N (2007b) Coding/decoding and reversibility of droplet trains in microfluidic network. Science 315:828–831
Sapuppo F, Schembri F, Fortuna L, Bucolo M (2009) Microfluidic circuits and systems. IEEE Circuits Syst Mag 9:6–19
Schembri F, Bucolo M (2011) Periodic input flows tuning nonlinear two-phase dynamics in a snake microchannel. Microfluidics NanoFluidics 11:189–197
Schembri F, Sapuppo F, Leggio E, Iacono-Manno M, Bucolo M, Fortuna L (2008) A grid computational approach to two-phase flow in microfluidics, final workshop of grid projects PON ricerca 2000–2006. AVVISO 1575:75–80
Shui L, Eijkel JCT, Wijnperle D, Berg van der A (2008) The effect of interfacial forces on 2-phase microfluidics. In: International conference on miniaturized systems for chemistry and life science (\(\mu\)TAS), vol 1479(1), pp 790–792, San Diego, CA, USA, October 12–16
Tabeling P (2005) Introduction to microfluidics. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Takada N, Misawa M, Tomiyama A (2006) A phase-field method for interface tracking simulation of two-phase flows. Math Comput Simul 72:220–226
Toepke M, Abhyankar V, Beebe D (2007) Microfluidic logic gates and timers. Lab Chip 7:1449–1453
van der Graaf S, Nisisako T, Schoroen CGPH, van der Sman RGM, Boom RM (2006) Lattice Boltzmann simulation of droplet formation in a T-shaped microchannel. Langimuir 22:4144–4152
Vestad T, Marr DWM, Munakata T (2004) Flow resistance for microfluidic logic operations. Appl Phys Lett 84(25):5074–5075
Whitesides GM (2006) The origins and the future of microfluidics. Nature 442:368–373
Worner M (2012) Numerical modeling of multiphase flows in microfluidics and micro process engineering: a review of methods and applications. Microfluidics Nanofluidics 12:841–886
Zhou C, Yue P, Feng JJ (2008) Deformation of compound drop through a contraction in a pressure driven pipe flow. Int J Multiphase Flow 34:102–109
This work was partially supported by MIUR in the framework of the PRIN09 (2011–2013) for the research project entitled “Integration of Strategies for an Innovative Control of Microfluidics Systems and Applicative Validity”.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Anandan, P., Gagliano, S. & Bucolo, M. Computational models in microfluidic bubble logic. Microfluid Nanofluid 18, 305–321 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-014-1434-7
- Phase-field method
- AND–OR gate
- NOT gate
- Memory circuit