Microfluidics and Nanofluidics

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 781–807 | Cite as

Electrochemical detection techniques in micro- and nanofluidic devices

Review

Abstract

Electrochemical techniques are widely used in microfluidic and nanofluidic devices because they are suitable for miniaturization, have better sensitivity compared to optical detection techniques, and their components can be reliably microfabricated. In addition to the detection and quantification of analytes, electrochemical techniques can be used to monitor processes such as biological cell death and protein/DNA separations/purifications. Such techniques are combined with micro- and nanofluidic devices with point-of-care (POC) applications in mind, where cost, footprint, ease of use, and independence from peripheral equipment are critical for a viable design. A large variety of electrode materials and device configurations have been employed to meet these requirements. This review introduces the reader to the major electrochemical techniques, materials, and fabrication methods for working and reference electrodes, and to surface modifications of electrodes to facilitate electrochemical measurements, in the context of micro- and nanofluidic devices. The continuing development of these techniques holds promise for the next-generation lab-on-a-chip devices, which can realize the goals of this technology such as POC clinical analysis.

Keywords

Electrochemistry Working electrode Reference electrode Lab-on-a-chip devices Electrochemical detection 

Abbreviations

AD

Amperometric detection

BDD

Boron-doped diamond

CC

Chronocoulometry

CD

Conductivity-based detection

CE–AD

Capillary electrophoresis–amperometric detection

CE

Counter electrode

CMOS

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor

CNT

Carbon nanotube

CTC

Circulating tumor cell

CV

Cyclic voltammetry

DEPIM

Dielectrophoretic impedance measurement

ECCS

Electrochemical correlation spectroscopy

EIS

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ESPR

Enhanced surface plasmon resonance

FIB

Focused ion beam

FSCV

Fast scan cyclic voltammetry

ITO

Indium tin oxide

LIF

Laser-induced fluorescence

LOD

Limit of detection

LSV

Linear scan voltammetry

PAD

Pulsed amperometric detection

PCB

Printed circuit board

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

POC

Point of care

SAM

Self-assembled monolayer

SECM

Scanning electrochemical microscopy

SPR

Surface plasmon resonance

SV

Stripping voltammetry

SWV

Square wave voltammetry

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomedical EngineeringRochester Institute of TechnologyRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA

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