Microfluidics and Nanofluidics

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 647–655 | Cite as

Three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow and particle focusing using four vortices Dean flow

  • Byung Hang Ha
  • Kang Soo Lee
  • Jin Ho Jung
  • Hyung Jin SungEmail author
Research Paper


We present a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing device built on a single-layer platform using single sheath flow. Despite the simple structure and operation, the device not only achieves narrow focusing of a sample fluid or particles but also switches the cross-sectional size and lateral position of the sample stream. The focusing mechanism utilizes four Dean vortices generated in a high-speed flow through a curved channel. Theoretical calculations, numerical simulations, and an experimental study demonstrated that the device could focus microparticles that resemble human platelets in terms of particle size and density in a single-stream manner. Further simulation study suggested that the device could focus most cell sizes used in flow cytometry with a throughput of 200,000 cells s−1. In addition, the device can function as a 3D liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) optical waveguide by introducing a core liquid with a refractive index higher than that of the cladding.


Lab-on-a-chip devices Waveguides Microfluidics Dean vortex Hydrodynamic focusing 



This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives Program (No. 2013-003364) of the National Research Foundation of Korea.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byung Hang Ha
    • 1
  • Kang Soo Lee
    • 1
  • Jin Ho Jung
    • 1
  • Hyung Jin Sung
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKAISTTaejonKorea

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