Microfluidics and Nanofluidics

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 635–644

Optical separation of droplets on a microfluidic platform

  • Jin Ho Jung
  • Kyung Heon Lee
  • Kang Soo Lee
  • Byung Hang Ha
  • Yong Suk Oh
  • Hyung Jin Sung
Research Paper

Abstract

This paper describes the optical separation of microdroplets according to their refractive indices. The behavior of the droplets was characterized in terms of the optical force and the hydrodynamic effects present upon illumination of the droplets in a direction normal to the flow direction in a rectangular microfluidic channel. The optical forces acting on the droplets and the resultant droplet trajectories were analyzed and compared with the numerically predicted values. The relationship between the drag force and optical force was examined to understand the system performance properties in the context of screening applications involving the removal of unwanted droplets. Two species of droplets were compared for their photophoretic displacements by varying the illumination intensity. Because the optical forces exerted on the droplets were functions of the refractive indices and sizes of the droplets, a variety of chemical species could be separated simultaneously.

Keywords

Optical force Droplet Two-phase flow Droplet migration Passive separation Optofluidics 

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MPG 798 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (MPG 1794 kb)

Supplementary material 3 (MPG 3454 kb)

References

  1. Agresti JJ, Antipov E, Abate AR, Ahn K, Rowat AC, Baret JC, Marquez M, Klibanov AM, Griffiths AD, Weitz DA (2010) Ultrahigh-throughput screening in drop-based microfluidics for directed evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:4004–4009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashkin A (1970) Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure. Phys Rev Lett 24:156–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashkin A (1997) Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:4853–4860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang CB, Huang W-X, Sung HJ (2012) Lateral migration of an elastic capsule by optical force in a uniform flow. Phys Rev E 86:066306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dholakia K, Cizmar T (2011) Shaping the future of manipulation. Nat Photonics 5:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dittrich PS, Schwille P (2003) An integrated microfluidic system for reaction, high-sensitivity detection, and sorting of fluorescent cells and particles. Anal Chem 75:5767–5774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fair RB (2007) Digital microfluidics: is a true lab-on-a-chip possible? Microfluid Nanofluid 3:245–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Franke T, Braunmuller S, Schmid L, Wixforth A, Weitz DA (2010) Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS). Lab Chip 10:789–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gauthier RC, Wallace S (1995) Optical levitation of spheres—analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations. J Opt Soc Am B 12:1680–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grier DG (2003) A revolution in optical manipulation. Nature 424:810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Happel J, Brenner H, Moreau RJ (1983) Low Reynolds number hydrodynamics: with special applications to particulate media (mechanics of fluids and transport processes). The HagueGoogle Scholar
  12. Hatch AC, Patel AA, Beer NR, Lee A (2013) Passive droplet sorting using viscoelastic flow focusing. Lab Chip 13:1308–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hebert CG, Terray A, Hart SJ (2011) Toward label-free optical fractionation of blood–optical force measurements of blood cells. Anal Chem 83:5666–5672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Helmbrecht C, Niessner R, Haisch C (2007) Photophoretic velocimetry for colloid characterization and separation in a cross-flow setup. Anal Chem 79:7097–7103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Imasaka T, Kawabata Y, Kaneta T, Ishidzu Y (1995) Optical chromatography. Anal Chem 67:1763–1765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Joensson HN, Uhlen M, Svahn HA (2011) Droplet size based separation by deterministic lateral displacement-separating droplets by cell-induced shrinking. Lab Chip 11:1305–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kelly BT, Baret JC, Taly V, Griffiths AD (2007) Miniaturizing chemistry and biology in microdroplets. Chem Commun 18:1773–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim M (2004) Effect of electrostatic, hydrodynamic, and brownian forces on particle trajectories and sieving in normal flow filtration. J Colloid Interface Sci 269:425–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim SB, Yoon SY, Sung HJ, Kim SS (2008) Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel. Anal Chem 80:2628–2630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee KH, Kim SB, Yoon SY, Lee KS, Jung JH, Sung HJ (2012) Behavior of double emulsions in a cross-type optical separation system. Langmuir 28:7343–7349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. MacDonald MP, Spalding GC, Dholakia K (2003) Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice. Nature 426:421–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maenaka H, Yamada M, Yasuda M, Seki M (2008) Continuous and size-dependent sorting of emulsion droplets using hydrodynamics in pinched microchannels. Langmuir 24:4405–4410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sia SK, Whitesides GM (2003) Microfluidic devices fabricated in poly (dimethylsiloxane) for biological studies. Electrophoresis 24:3563–3576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sibillo V, Pasquariello G, Simeone M, Cristini V, Guido S (2006) Drop deformation in microconfined shear flow. Phys Rev Lett 97:054502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Song H, Chen DL, Ismagilov RF (2006) Reactions in droplets in microfluidic channels. Angew Chem Int Ed 45:7336–7356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Squires TM, Quake SR (2005) Microfluidics: fluid physics at the nanoliter scale. Rev Mod Phys 77:977–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Teh SY, Lin R, Hung LH, Lee AP (2008) Droplet microfluidics. Lab Chip 8:198–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tewhey R, Warner JB, Nakano M, Libby B, Medkova M, David PH, Kotsopoulos SK, Samuels ML, Hutchison JB, Larson JW, Topol EJ, Weiner MP, Harismendy O, Olson J, Link DR, Frazer KA (2009) Microdroplet-based PCR enrichment for large-scale targeted sequencing. Nat Biotechnol 27:1025–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Theberge AB, Courtois F, Schaerli Y, Fischlechner M, Abell C, Hollfelder F, Huck WT (2010) Microdroplets in microfluidics: an evolving platform for discoveries in chemistry and biology. Angew Chem Int Ed 49:5846–5868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thorsen T, Roberts RW, Arnold FH, Quake SR (2001) Dynamic pattern formation in a vesicle-generating microfluidic device. Phys Rev Lett 86:4163–4166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Um E, Rha E, Choi SL, Lee SG, Park JK (2012) Mesh-integrated microdroplet array for simultaneous merging and storage of single-cell droplets. Lab Chip 12:1594–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. van der Sman RG (2010) Drag force on spheres confined on the center line of rectangular microchannels. J Colloid Interface Sci 351:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang K, Liang Q, Ma S, Mu X, Hu P, Wang Y, Luo G (2009) On-chip manipulation of continuous picoliter-volume superparamagnetic droplets using a magnetic force. Lab Chip 9:2992–2999CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jin Ho Jung
    • 1
  • Kyung Heon Lee
    • 1
  • Kang Soo Lee
    • 1
  • Byung Hang Ha
    • 1
  • Yong Suk Oh
    • 1
  • Hyung Jin Sung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKAISTDaejeonKorea

Personalised recommendations