Implantable microfluidic and electronic systems for insect flight manipulation
- 475 Downloads
Insect micro air vehicles represent a promising alternative to traditional small scale aircraft because they combine the enhanced energy storage and maneuverability of living insects with the controllability offered by microelectromechanical systems. These systems have been previously demonstrated, usually using either electrical (with implanted electrodes) or chemical (with implanted microfluidics) control schemes, but to date little work has been done on the creation of hybrid systems that use both these methods simultaneously. In this paper, we develop an integrated microsystem that uses both chemical and electrical methods to modulate the flight activity of Manduca sexta moths. The integration of two control schemes is essential because it could increase the number of achievable flight routines and duration. The electrical component of the system initiates and maintains flight by applying electrical pulses to an antenna lobe and an implanted drug delivery component modulates flight output power by administering a neurotransmitter dose to the central nervous system. Flight duration results acquired with this system are compared with those obtained from direct mechanical stimulation. We demonstrate that the electrical stimulation provides as much as 35-fold enhancement in flight duration with respect to mechanical agitation and that a 50% mean flight power output reduction can be achieved with the proper neurotransmitter dose.
KeywordsMicrofluidics Drug delivery Insect cyborg Manduca Sexta moth flight control
The authors would like to thank J. Atchison for his contributions towards the boost converter design, Prof. M. Campbell and Prof. H. Kress-Gazit for access to the VICON system, M. Kalontarov for helpful discussions, Prof. H. Lipson for access to the 3D Acrylic Printer and Dr. M. Ozgur at MEMS Exchange. This work was supported by the DARPA Defense Sciences Office under the HI-MEMS program through the BTI for Plant Research. Distribution unlimited. The facilities used for this research include Cornell Nanoscale Science and Technology Facility (CNF), Nanobiotechnology Center (NBTC) at Cornell University.
- Bozkurt A, Gilmour R, Stern D, Lal A (2008) MEMS based bioelectronic neuromuscular interfaces for insect cyborg flight control. In: Proceedings of the 21st IEEE International Conference on MEMS, pp 160–163Google Scholar
- Bozkurt A, Lal A, Gilmour R (2009c) Aerial and terrestrial locomotion control of lift assisted insect biobots. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp 2058–2061Google Scholar
- Hedrick TL (2008) Software techniques for two- and three-dimensional kinematic measurements of biological and biomimetic systems. Bioinspir Biomim 3(3):034001–034006Google Scholar
- Helm B (2005) Finding land mines by following a bee. Business WeekGoogle Scholar
- Johnston RM, Levine RB (1996) Crawling motor patterns induced by pilocarpine in isolated larval nerve cords of Manduca sexta. J Neurophysiol 76(5):3178–3195Google Scholar
- McCrea MJ, Heath JE (1971) Dependence of flight on temperature regulation in the moth Manduca Sexta. J Exp Biol 54(2):415–435Google Scholar
- Pesavento U, Wang ZJ (2009) Flapping wing flight can save aerodynamic power compared to steady flight. Phys Rev Lett 103(11):118102Google Scholar
- Skinner WS, Dennis PA, Li JP, Summerfelt RM, Carney RL, Quistad GB (1991) Isolation and Identification of Paralytic Peptides from Hemolymph of the Lepidopteran Insects Manduca Sexta, Spodoptera exigua, and Heliothis virescens. J Biol Chem 266(20):12873–12877Google Scholar
- Ziegler R (1991) Changes in lipid and carbohydrate-metabolism during starvation in adult Manduca sexta. J Comp Physiol B Biochem Syst Environ Physiol 161(2):125–131Google Scholar