Direct pattern formation of bacterial cells using micro-droplets generated by electrohydrodynamic forces

  • Ju-Han Kim
  • Dae-Young Lee
  • Jungho Hwang
  • Hyo-Il JungEmail author
Research Paper


Bacterial cells were patterned efficiently on a nutrient-coated membrane in a direct, rapid, and cost-effective manner using electro-hydrodynamically generated micro-droplets. By varying the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the bacterial printing solution, uniform droplets were obtained. Escherichia coli cells were directly printed onto a membrane filter, followed by overnight incubation on an agar plate which created line patterns of bacterial colonies with a width of approximately 160 μm. Optimization of the concentration of the chemical components [i.e. the ethylene glycol (EG), phosphate buffer (PB), and sodium chloride (NaCl)] in the processing bacterial solution allowed successful growth and patterning of the cells. The optimal conditions to achieve the most effective cell growth and patterning on these printed surfaces were an EG concentration of 40 vol% and a concentration as low as 10 mM of PB or NaCl in the printing solution. Cells passing through the electric nozzle during the printing process remained viable.


Electrohydrodynamic printing Droplets Bacterial cells Micropatterning Cone-jet 



This work was supported by a grant from the Korea Research Foundation Grant (KRF-2006-331-D00040) funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD), a grant from the ICBIN of the Seoul R&BD program (Grant no. 10816), and a grant from the National Core Research Center (NCRC) for Nanomedical Technology of the Korea Science & Engineering Foundation (Grant no. R15-2004-024-01001-0).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ju-Han Kim
    • 1
  • Dae-Young Lee
    • 1
  • Jungho Hwang
    • 1
  • Hyo-Il Jung
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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