The contemporary role of echocardiography in the assessment and management of aortic stenosis
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Aortic stenosis (AS) represents a major healthcare issue because of its ever-increasing prevalence, poor prognosis, and complex pathophysiology. Echocardiography plays a central role in providing a comprehensive morphological and hemodynamic evaluation of AS. The diagnosis of severe AS is currently based on three hemodynamic parameters including maximal jet velocity, mean pressure gradient (mPG) across the aortic valve, and aortic valve area (AVA). However, inconsistent grading of AS severity is common when the AVA is < 1.0 cm2 but the mPG is < 40 mmHg, also known as low-gradient AS (LGAS). Special attention should be paid to patients with symptomatic LGAS with low stroke volume and/or low ejection fraction because this entity is more difficult to diagnose and has a worse prognosis. Stress echocardiography testing plays an important role in this disease entity. Elderly patients with prohibitive comorbidities for surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) were without procedural options until the advent of transcatheter AVR (TAVR), which has dramatically changed these circumstances. Along with computed tomography, echocardiography plays a vital role in the periprocedural assessment of the aortic valve and surrounding apparatus. This review describes the evolution of the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis and management of AS, the complexity of the aortic apparatus, and the increased need for expert use of three-dimensional echocardiography.
KeywordsAortic stenosis Valvular heart disease Echocardiography
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Takeshi Kitai, and Rayji S. Tsutsui declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
None of the procedures or experimentations was used in the current manuscript.
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