, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 21–60 | Cite as

Determinants of Cookstoves and Fuel Choice Among Rural Households in India

  • Vikas Menghwani
  • Hisham Zerriffi
  • Puneet Dwivedi
  • Julian D. Marshall
  • Andrew Grieshop
  • Rob BailisEmail author
Original Contribution


Roughly 2.8 billion people depend on solid fuels for cooking needs, resulting in a tremendous burden of disease from exposure to household air pollution. Despite decades of effort to promote cleaner cooking technologies, displacement of polluting technologies has progressed slowly. This paper describes results of a randomized controlled trial in which eight communities in two regions of rural India were presented with a range of cooking choices including improved solid fuel stoves and clean cooking options like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and induction stoves. Using survey data and logistic and multinomial regression, we identify factors associated with two outcomes: (1) pre-intervention ownership of non-solid fuel technologies and (2) household preferences for clean fuels from the range of cooking options offered. The analysis allows us to examine the influence of education, wealth, gender empowerment, stove pricing, and stove exchanges, among other variables. The majority of participants across all communities selected the cleanest options, LPG and induction, irrespective of price, but there is some variation in preferences. Wealth and higher caste stand out as significant predictors of pre-intervention ownership and non-solid fuel cooking options as well as preference for cleaner technologies offered through the intervention. The experimental treatments also influence preferences in some communities. When given the opportunity to exchange, communities in one region are more likely to choose solid fuel stoves (P < 0.05). Giving free stoves had mixed results; households in one region are more likely to select clean options (P < 0.05), but households in the other region prefer solid fuels (P < 0.10).


Improved cookstoves (ICS) Household energy transition Biomass LPG Rural India Multinomial regression Logistic regression 



This article was developed under Assistance Agreement No. 83542102 awarded by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to Dr. Rob Bailis (with sub-award to Dr. Hisham Zerriffi) and received supplemental funding from the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (award no. UNF-160798). It has not been formally reviewed by the EPA or GACC. The views expressed in this document are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Agency or GACC. Neither EPA nor GACC endorses any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.


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Copyright information

© EcoHealth Alliance 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vikas Menghwani
    • 1
  • Hisham Zerriffi
    • 2
  • Puneet Dwivedi
    • 3
  • Julian D. Marshall
    • 4
  • Andrew Grieshop
    • 5
  • Rob Bailis
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.IRESUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of ForestryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Warnell School of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  4. 4.Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental EngineeringNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  6. 6.Stockholm Environment Institute – US CenterSomervilleUSA

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