, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 575–590 | Cite as

Seasonal Bushmeat Hunger in the Congo Basin

  • Edmond Dounias
  • Mitsuo Ichikawa
Original Contribution


Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being. Bushmeat hunger is a psychocultural form of hunger that generates several mental disorders. We present results from nutritional anthropology studies carried out among various Congo Basin forest peoples, which regularly suffer from bushmeat hunger. We expose the physiological risks that result from this psychological unrest, we argue that this type of unsatisfied compiling desire for meat should be considered as a factor of food insecurity and we conclude on its incidence on bushmeat trade. The immoderate craving for bushmeat compromises the attempts to replace bushmeat by other sources of meat and is a persisting obstacle to conservation initiatives that fail to take the psychocultural values of bushmeat into consideration.


Congo Basin forest dwellers Meat Hunger Craving Food insecurity Mental health Bushmeat trade Conservation 



We are grateful to Nathalie van Vliet from the CIFOR Bushmeat Research Initiative and Ferran Jori Massanas from Cirad for having invited us to make an oral communication at the ICCB/ECCB Congress held in Montpellier (France) on August 2015. The present paper was directly elaborated from this communication. This work was supported by funding from the French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD), the Center for Functional and Evolutionary Ecology in Montpellier (CEFE) and the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of the MEXT, Japan (No. 15H02598).


  1. Abitbol M (1995) Speculation on posture, locomotion, energy consumption, and blood flow in early hominids. Gait & Posture 3: 29–37; DOI:  10.1016/0966-6362(95)90806-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkemade R, Reid RS, van den Berg M, de Leeuw J, Jeuken M (2013) Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 20900–20905; DOI:  10.1073/pnas.1011013108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahuchet S (1985) Les Pygmées Aka de la forêt centrafricaine. Paris: SELAF.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey RC, Peacock NR (1988) Efe Pygmies of northeast Zaïre: Subsistence strategies in the Ituri forest. In Coping with Uncertainty in Food Supply Garine I de, Harrison GA (editors), Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 88–117.Google Scholar
  5. Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J (2000) Guide to measuring food insecurity, revised 2000. Alexandria, VA: US Department of Agriculture, Food, and Nutrition Service.Google Scholar
  6. Biesalski HK (2005) Meat as a component of a healthy diet—are there any risks or benefits if meat is avoided in the diet? Meat Science 70(3): 509–524; DOI:  10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.07.017 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaney S, Beaudry M, Latham M (2009) Contribution of natural resources to nutritional status in a protected area of Gabon. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 30(1): 49–62. doi: 10.1177/156482650903000105 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brisson R (2010) Lexique Français-Baka (Sud-Cameroun). Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  9. Brown D (2003) Is the best the enemy of the good? Livelihoods perspectives on bushmeat harvesting and trade. Paper presented at The International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity. 19–23 May 2003, Bonn, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  10. Bulliet RW (2005) Hunters, herders, and hamburgers: The past and future of human-animal relationships. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Canadian Mental Health Association, Ontario (2008) Mental Health Promotion in Ontario: A Call to Action. Toronto: Canadian Mental Health Association.Google Scholar
  12. Chaber AL, Allebone-Webb S, Lignereux Y, Cunningham AA, Rowcliffe JM (2010) The scale of illegal meat importation from Africa to Europe via Paris. Conservation Letters 3(5): 317–321; DOI:  10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00121.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chilton M, Booth S (2007) Hunger of the body and hunger of the mind: African American women’s perceptions of food insecurity, health and violence. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 39(3): 116–125; DOI:  10.1016/j.jneb.2006.11.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coelho JS, Polivy J, Herman CP (2006) Selective carbohydrate or protein restriction: Effects on subsequent food intake and cravings. Appetite 47: 352–360; DOI:  10.1016/j.appet.2006.05.015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corrigall J, Lund C, Patel V, Plagerson S, Funk MK (2008) Poverty and mental illness: fact or fiction? A commentary on Das, Do, Friedman, McKenzie & Scott (65(3): 2007, 467–480). Social Science & Medicine 66(9): 2061–2063; DOI:  10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crawford MA (1970) Studies on fa’m’ y acid composition meats of wild and domestic. Methods 295–305Google Scholar
  17. Danielsson M, Heimerson I, Lundberg U, Perski A, Stefansson CG, Akerstedt T (2012) Psychosocial stress and health problems: Health in Sweden: The National Public Health Report 2012. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health supplement issue 40(9): 121–34; DOI:  10.1177/1403494812459469 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Das J, Do QT, Friedman J, McKenzie D, Scott K (2007) Mental health and poverty in developing countries: Revisiting the relationship. Social Science & Medicine 65: 467–480; DOI:  10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.02.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Das J, Do QT, Friedman J, McKenzie D, Scott K (2008) Revisiting the relationship between mental health and poverty in developing countries: a response to Corrigall. Social Science & Medicine 66: 2064. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. deFrance SD (2009) Zooarchaeology in complex societies. Political economy, status, and ideology. Journal of Archaeological Research 17: 105–168; DOI:  10.1007/s10814-008-9027-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Desjarlais R, Eisenberg L, Good B, Kleinman A (1996) World mental health: Problems and priorities in low-income countries. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dounias E (1993) Dynamique et gestion différentielles du système de production des Mvae du sud Cameroun forestier. Montpellier: Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, Doctoral DissertationGoogle Scholar
  23. Dounias E (2007) Damned pigs! Why do the Punan persist running after the migrating wild boars of Borneo? In Dounias E, Motte-Florac E, Dunham M (eds) Animal symbolism: Animals, keystone of the relationship between Man and Nature?. Paris: IRD Editions, pp. 1068–1096.Google Scholar
  24. Dounias E (2016) From subsistence to commercial hunting: Technical shift in cynegetic practices among Southern Cameroon forest dwellers during the 20th century. Ecology and Society 21(1): 23. doi: 10.5751/ES-07946-210123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eaton SB, Konner M (1985) Paleolithic nutrition: A consideration of its nature and current implications. New England Journal of Medicine 312(5): 283–289; DOI:  10.1056/NEJM198501313120505 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eaton SB, Konner MJ (1997) Review paleolithic nutrition revisited: a twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51(4): 207–216; DOI:  10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600389 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fa JE, Péres CA and Meeuwig J (2002) Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: an international comparison. Conservation Biology 16(1): 232–237; DOI:  10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00275.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO (2014) Food outlook, Biannual report on global food markets. Roma: FAO.Google Scholar
  29. Fessler DMT, Navarrete CD (2003) Meat is good to taboo. Dietary proscriptions as a product of the interaction of psychological mechanisms and social process. Journal of cognition and Culture 3(1): 1–40. doi: 10.1163/156853703321598563 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fiddes N (1991) Meat. A natural symbol. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Flinn MV, Geary DC, Ward, CV (2005) Ecological dominance, social competition, and coalitionary arms races. Why humans evolved extraordinary intelligence. Evolution and Human Behavior 26: 10–46; DOI:  10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Froment A (1990) Biomedical surveys in relation to food and nutrition. In Food and nutrition in the tropical rain forest, Hladik CM, Garine I de, Bahuchet S (editors), Paris: Unesco/MAB, pp. 69–72.Google Scholar
  33. Froment A, Koppert G (1994) Comparative food practices in African forest and savanna populations and their biological consequences. In: Thierry B, Anderson JR, Roeder JJ, Herrenschmidt N (eds) Current Primatology, Ecology and Evolution. Strasbourg: University Louis Pasteur, pp. 161–174.Google Scholar
  34. Frongillo E (1999) Advances in measuring food insecurity and hunger in the U.S. Journal of Nutrition 129: 506S–509S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Garine I de (2005) Meat: Between ritual and gastronomy. In: Meat: Environment, diet and health, Hubert A, Avíla R (editors), Estudios del hombre, vol 19, pp 73–89Google Scholar
  36. Garine I de, Garine V (2005) The trouble with meat: An ambiguous food. In: Meat: Environment, diet and health, Hubert A, Avíla R (editors), Estudios del hombre, vol 19, pp 33–54Google Scholar
  37. Garine I de, Koppert JGA (1988) Coping with seasonal fluctuations in food supply among savanna populations: The Massa and Mussey of Chad and Cameroon. In: Coping with uncertainty in food supply, Garine I de, Harrison GA (editors), Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 210–259.Google Scholar
  38. Garine I de, Pagezy H (1990) Food and nutrition among “high-risk groups”. In: Food and nutrition in the tropical rain forest, Hladik CM, Garine I de, Bahuchet S (editors), Paris: Unesco-MAB, pp 43–44Google Scholar
  39. Grisaru N, Kaufman R, Mirsky J, Witztum E (2011) Food insecurity and mental health: A pilot study of patients in a psychiatric emergency unit in Israel. Community Mental Health Journal 47:513–519. doi: 10.1007/s10597-010-9339-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gucciardi E, Vogt JA, DeMelo M, Stewart DE (2009) Exploration of the relationship between household food insecurity and diabetes in Canada. Diabetes Care 32(12): 2218–2224; DOI:  10.2337/dc09-0823 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guerrant RL, Oriá RB, Moore SR, Oriá MOB, Lima AAM (2008) Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development. Nutrition Reviews 66(9): 487–505; DOI:  10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00082.x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gunsoy C, Cross S, Uskul A, Adams G, Gercek-Swing B (2015) Avoid or fight back? Cultural differences in responses to conflict and the role of collectivism, honor, and enemy perception. Journal Of Cross-Cultural Psychology 46: 1081–1102; DOI:  10.1177/0022022115594252 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hamelin AM, Beaudry M, Habicht JP (2002) Characterization of household food insecurity in Quebec: food and feelings. Social Science & Medicine 54: 119–132. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00013-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hardy K, Brand-Miller J, Brown K, Tomas MG, Copeland L (2015) The importance of dietary carbohydrate in human evolution. The Quarterly Review of Biology 90(3): 251–268; DOI:  10.1086/682587 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harris M (1987) Foodways: Historical overview and theoretical prolegomenon. In: Harris M, Ross EB (eds) Food and evolution: Toward a theory of human food habits. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, pp. 57–90.Google Scholar
  46. Hart JA (1978) From subsistence to market: A case study of the Mbuti net hunters. Human Ecology 6(3): 325–353; DOI:  10.1007/BF00889029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hart JA (1979) Nomadic hunters and village cultivators: A study of subsistence interdependence in the Ituri Forest of Zaire. Michigan: Michigan State University, M.A. thesisGoogle Scholar
  48. Hattori S (2014) Current issues facing the forest people in southeastern Cameroon: the dynamics of Baka life and their ethnic relationship with farmers. African Study Monographs Supplement Issue 47: 97–119; DOI:  10.14989/185099 Google Scholar
  49. Heflin CM, Ziliak JP (2008) Food insufficiency, food stamp participation, and mental health. Social Science Quarterly 89(3): 707–727. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2008.00556.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hess N, Helfrecht C, Hagen E, Sell A, Hewlett B (2010) Interpersonal aggression among Aka hunter-gatherers of the Central African Republic: Assessing the effects of sex, strength, and anger. Human Nature 21: 330–354; DOI:  10.1007/s12110-010-9094-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hewlett BS (1991) Intimate fathers: The nature and context of Aka pygmy paternal infant care. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hill AJ (2007) The psychology of food craving: Symposium on ‘Molecular mechanisms and psychology of food intake’. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 66:277–285. doi: 10.1017/S0029665107005502
  53. Hill AJ, Heaton-Brown L (1994) The experience of food craving: A prospective investigation in healthy women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 38: 801–814. doi: 10.1016/0022-3999(94)90068-X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hill AJ, Weaver CFL, Blundell JE (1991) Food craving, dietary restraint and mood. Appetite 17: 187–197. doi: 10.1016/0195-6663(91)90021-J PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hill K, Hawkes K, Hurtado M, Kaplan H (1984) Seasonal variance in the diet of Ache hunter-gatherers in eastern Paraguay. Human Ecology 12: 101–35. DOI:  10.1007/BF01531269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Horton R (2007) Launching a new movement for mental health. The Lancet 370(9590):806. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61243-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Höygaard A (1941) Studies on the nutrition and physiopathology of Eskimos undertaken at Angmassalik, East Greenland: I Kommission Hos Jacob Dybwad.Google Scholar
  58. Ichikawa M (1981) Ecological and sociological importance of honey to the Mbuti net hunters, Eastern Zaire. African Study Monographs 1: 55–69; DOI:  10.14989/67980 Google Scholar
  59. Ichikawa M (1986) Ecological bases of symbiosis, Territoriality and intra-band cooperation of The Mbuti Pygmies. Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika 7: 161–188.Google Scholar
  60. Ichikawa M (2008) Bushmeat Problem: An emergent crisis of tropical rainforests in Africa. In: Hayashi Y, Ikeya K (eds) Wildlife and Environment. Tokyo: Iwanami, pp. 163–184 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  61. Ichikawa M, Hattori S, Yasuoka H (2016) Bushmeat crisis, forestry reforms and contemporary hunting among Central African forest hunters. In: Pyhälä A, Reyes-García V (editors), Hunter-gatherers in a Changing World, New-York, NY: Springer, pp. 59–75.Google Scholar
  62. Jelliffe DB (1967) Parallel food classifications in developing and industrialised countries. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20: 279–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jenner DA, Harrison GA, Prior IAM, Leonetti DL, Fujimoto WJ, Kabuto M (1987) Inter-population comparisons of catecholamine excretion. Annals of Human Biology 14: 1–9. doi: 10.1080/03014468700008781 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones M (2007) Feast. Why humans share food. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Kavanagh DJ, Andrade J, May J (2005) Imaginary relish and exquisite torture: The elaborated intrusion theory of desire. Psychological Review 112: 446–467. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.112.2.446 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kennedy E (2002) Guest Editorial: The New Faces of Food Insecurity and Hunger. Nutrition Today 37(4): 154–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kensinger KM (1983). On meat and hunting. Current Anthropology 24: 128–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kimura D, Yasuoka H, Furuichi T (2012) Diachronic changes in protein acquisition among the Bongando in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. African Study Monographs Supplementary Issue 43: 161–178; DOI:  10.14989/153059 Google Scholar
  69. Kitanishi K (1995) Seasonal changes in the subsistence activities and food intake of the Aka hunter-gatherers in northeastern Congo. African Study Monographs 16(2): 73–118. doi:  10.14989/68133 Google Scholar
  70. Kleinman A, Han C (2004) Global mental health: Research that matters for the developing world. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  71. Komatsu K, Kitanishi K (2015) Household protein intake and Distribution of protein sources in the markets of Southern Ghana: A Preliminary Report. African Study Monographs Supplement Issue 51: 157–173; DOI:  10.14989/197200 Google Scholar
  72. Koch H (1968) Magie et chasse dans la forêt camerounaise. Paris: Berger Levrant.Google Scholar
  73. Koppert GJA (1988) Alimentation et culture chez les Tamang, les Ghalé et les Kami du Népal. Marseille: Université d’Aix-Marseille, Doctoral dissertationGoogle Scholar
  74. Koppert GJA, Dounias E, Froment A, Pasquet P (1993) Food consumption in the forest populations of the southern coastal area of Cameroon. In: Tropical forests, people and food. Bio-cultural interactions and applications to development, Hladik CM, Pagezy H, Linares OF, Hladik A, Semple A, Hadley M (editors), Paris: Unesco-Parthenon, Man and Biosphere series, pp 295–310Google Scholar
  75. Lea E, Worsley A (2003) Benefits and barriers to the consumption of a vegetarian diet in Australia. Public Health Nutrition 6: 505–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lee RB (1979) The !Kung San: Men, women and work in a foraging society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Le Robert dictionnaire (1969) Paris: Société du nouveau Littré.Google Scholar
  78. Leroy F, Praet I (2015) Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat. Appetite 90: 200–211; DOI:  10.1016/j.appet.2015.03.014 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lund C, Breen A, Flisher AJ, Kakuma R, Corrigall J, Joska JA, Swartz L, Patel V. (2010) Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine 71(3): 517–528; DOI:  10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.04.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mann N (2007) Meat in the human diet: An anthropological perspective. Nutrition and Dietetics 64(s4): S102–S107; DOI:  10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00194.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marlowe FW (2003) A critical period for provisioning by Hadza men Implications for pair bonding. Evolution and Human Behavior 24: 217–229; DOI:  10.1016/S1090-5138(03)00014-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McFarlane AC (2010) The long-term costs of traumatic stress: intertwined physical and psychological consequences World Psychiatry 9(1): 3–10; DOI:  10.1002/j.2051-5545.2010.tb00254.x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Michaelsen KF (2000) Are there negative effects of an excessive protein intake? Pediatrics 106(5): 1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mikkelsen E, in collaboration with P Sveistrup (1944) The East Greenlanders’ possibilities of existence, their production and consumption. Meddelelser om Grönland 134(2): 1–245.Google Scholar
  85. Montanari M, Brombert BA (2015) Medieval tastes: food, cooking, and the table. Columbia: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mpenga-Wora M (1982) Les caractéristiques de l’alimentation chez les Ngwemyènè du Gabon. Paris: Université de Paris 1, Doctoral dissertationGoogle Scholar
  87. Muldoon KA, Duff PK, Fielden S, Anema A (2013) Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 48: 795–803; DOI:  10.1007/s00127-012-0597-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nasi R, Brown D, Wilkie D, Bennett E, Tutin C, van Tol G, Christophersen T (2008) Conservation and use of wildlife-based resources: The bushmeat crisis. Technical Series No. 33. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  89. Nasi R, Taber A, Van Vliet N (2011) Empty forests, empty stomachs? Bushmeat and livelihoods in the Congo and Amazon Basins. International Forestry Review 13(3): 355–368; DOI:  10.1505/146554811798293872 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ohtsuka R (1993) Changing Food and Nutrition of the Gidra in Lowland Papua New Guinea. In: Tropical forests, people and food. Biocultural interactions and applications to development, Hladik CM, Pagezy H, Linares OF, Hladik A, Semple A, Hadley M (editors), Paris: Unesco-Parthenon, Man and Biosphere series, pp 257–270Google Scholar
  91. Oishi T (2014) Sharing hunger and sharing food: Staple food procurement in long-term fishing expeditions of Bakwele horticulturalists in southeastern Cameroon. African Study Monographs Supplement Issue 47: 59–72; DOI:  10.14989/185101 Google Scholar
  92. Orlove BS (1997) Meat and strength. The moral economy of a Chilean food riot. Cultural Anthropology 12: 234–268; DOI:  10.1525/can.1997.12.2.234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pagezy H (1982) Seasonal hunger, as experienced by the Oto and the Twa of a Ntomba village in the equatorial forest (lake Tumba, Zaire). Ecology of Food and Nutrition 12(3): 139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pagezy H (1990) Seasonal variation of food supply in the Lake Tumba region of Zaire. In: Hladik CM, Bahuchet S., Garine I. de (eds). Food and nutrition in the African rain forest. Paris: Unesco/MAB, pp. 37–42.Google Scholar
  95. Pagezy H (1988) Contraintes nutritionnelles en milieu forestier équatorial liés à la saisonnalitté et a la Reproduction: Réponses biologiques et stratégies de subsistance chez les Ba-Oto et les Ba-Twa du village de Nzalekenga (lac Tumba, Zaïre). Marseille: Aix-Marseille University, Doctoral dissertationGoogle Scholar
  96. Parker S, Kamel N, Zellner D (2003) Food craving patterns in Egypt: Comparisons with North America and Spain. Appetite 40: 193–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Patel V, Sartorius N (2008) From science to action: the Lancet Series on Global Mental Health. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 21: 109–113; DOI:  10.3109/10673229.2012.649108 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Partinen M (1994) Sleep disorders and stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 38(1): 89-91; DOI:  10.1016/0022-3999(94)90139-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Patel V, Kleinman A (2003) Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization 81(8): 609–615.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Pelchat ML (1997) Food cravings in young and elderly adults. Appetite 28: 103–113; DOI:  10.1006/appe.1996.0063 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pelchat ML (2002) Of human bondage: Food craving, obsession, compulsion, and addiction. Physiology and Behavior 76: 347–352; DOI:  10.1016/S0031-9384(02)00757-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pereira PMCC, Vicente AFRB (2013) Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet. Meat Science 93: 586–592; DOI:  10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.018 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Peterson N (1993) Demand sharing: Reciprocity and the pressure for generosity among foragers. American Anthropologist 95(4): 860–874; DOI:  10.1525/aa.1993.95.4.02a00050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Petit Larousse dictionnaire (2003) Paris: LarousseGoogle Scholar
  105. Pollan M (2013) Cooked. A natural history of transformation. New York, NY: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  106. Remis MJ, Jost Robinson CA (2014) Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 154: 365–375; DOI:  10.1002/ajpa.22521 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Renton A (2013). Planet carnivore. London: Guardian Books.Google Scholar
  108. Robinson J, Bennett E (2002) Will alleviating poverty solve the bushmeat crisis? Oryx, 36(4): 332. DOI:  10.1017/S0030605302000662 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rogers PJ, Smit HJ (2000) Food craving and food ‘addiction’: A critical review of the evidence from a biopsychosocial perspective. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 66: 3–14; DOI:  10.1016/S0091-3057(00)00197-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sathyanarayana Rao TS, Asha MR, Ramesh BN, Jagannatha Rao KS (2008) Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses. Indian Journal of Psychiatry 50(2): 77–82; DOI:  10.4103/0019-5545.42391 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sawada M (1990) Two patterns of chorus among the Efe, forest hunter-gatherers in Northeastern Zaire: Why do they love to sing? African Study Monographs 10: 159–195; DOI:  10.14989/68058 Google Scholar
  112. Seipel MO (1999) Social consequences of malnutrition. Social Work 44(5): 409–504; DOI:  10.1093/sw/44.5.416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Siefert K, Heflin CM, Corcoran ME, Williams DR (2004) Food insufficiency and physical and mental health in a longitudinal survey of welfare recipients. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 45(2):171–186. doi: 10.1177/002214650404500204 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Smil V (2002) Eating meat. Evolution, patterns, and consequences. Population and Development Review 28: 599–639; DOI:  10.1111/j.1728-4457.2002.00599.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Smil V (2013) Should we eat meat? Evolution and consequences of modern carnivory. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Speth JD (2010) The other side of protein. In: The Paleoanthropology and Archaeology of Big-Game Hunting, Speth JD (editor), New York: Springer, pp 45–85. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6733-6_4
  117. Stanford CB (1999) The hunting apes. Meat eating and the origin of human behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Stanford CB, Bunn H (2001) Meat-eating and human evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Tanaka J (1976) Subsistence ecology of Central Kalahari, In: Kalahari hunter-gatherers. Studies of the !Kung San and their neighbours, Lee RB, Vore I de (editors), Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press, pp 98–114Google Scholar
  120. Terashima H, Ichikawa M (2003) A Comparative Ethnobotany of the Mbuti and Efe Hunter-gatherers in the Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo. African Study Monographs 24(1/2): 1–168. doi: 10.14989/68220 Google Scholar
  121. Thompson B, Amoroso L (2010) Combating micronutrient deficiencies: food-based approaches. Roma: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Turnbull CM (1972) The Mountain People, New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  123. Twigg J (1983) Vegetarianism and the meanings of meat. In: The sociology of food and eating, Murcott A (editor), Aldershot: Gower Publishing Company, pp. 18–30.Google Scholar
  124. United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture (2006) Afrique centrale. Statistiques et analyses sous-régionales. Hamburg: UNESCO Regional Bureau for Education in Africa.Google Scholar
  125. United Nations Subcommittee on Nutrition (2001) United Nations Subcommittee on Nutrition: Nutrition and HIV/AIDS. Nairobi: United Nations.Google Scholar
  126. Üstün TB, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Chatterji S, Mathers C, Murray CJ (2004) Global burden of depressive disorders in the year 2000. British Journal of Psychiatry 184: 386–392; DOI:  10.1192/bjp.184.5.386 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Vliet N, Fa J, Nasi R (2015) Managing hunting under uncertainty: from one-off ecological indicators to resilience approaches in assessing the sustainability of bushmeat hunting. Ecology and Society 20(3): 7. doi: 10.5751/ES-07669-200307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Vinnari M, Tapio P (2009) Future images of meat consumption in 2030. Futures 41: 269–278; DOI:  10.1016/j.futures.2008.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. von Braun J (2008) Rising food prices: What should be done? Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  130. Vozoris NT, Tarasuk VS (2003) Household food insufficiency is associated with poorer health. Journal of Nutrition 133: 120–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wang WJ, Crompton RH (2004) The role of load-carrying in the evolution of modern body proportions. Journal of Anatomy 204(5): 417–430; DOI:  10.1111/j.0021-8782.2004.00295.x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Weaver LJ, Hadley C (2009) Moving beyond hunger and nutrition: A systematic review of the evidence linking food insecurity and mental health in developing countries. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 48(4): 263–284; DOI:  10.1080/03670240903001167 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Webb P, Coates J, Frongillo EA, Rogers BL, Swindale A, Bilinsky P (2006) Measuring household food insecurity: why it’s so important and yet so difficult to do. Journal of Nutrition 136(5): 1404S–1408S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. World Health Organization (2002). Prevention and Promotion in Mental Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  135. World Health Organization (2010) Global health risks. Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  136. Woot-Tsuen WL (1968) Food Composition Table for Use in Africa. Roma: US Department of Health and FAO.Google Scholar
  137. Yamaguchi R (2015) Food consumption and preferences of the Bongando people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. African Study Monographs Supplement Issue 51: 37–55; DOI:  10.14989/197207 Google Scholar
  138. Yamauchi T, Sato H, Kawamura K (2000) Nutritional status, activity pattern, and dietary intake among the Baka hunter-gatherers in the village camps in Cameroon. African Study Monographs 21(2): 67–82. doi:  10.14989/68193 Google Scholar
  139. Zucoloto F (2011) Evolution of the human feeding behavior. Psychology & Neuroscience 4(1): 131–141; DOI:  10.3922/j.psns.2011.1.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EcoHealth Alliance 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UMR5175 CEFEIRD-CIFORMontpellier Cedex 5France
  2. 2.Emeritus at the Center for African Area StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations