Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming Species Barriers
Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus. Circumstantial or observational evidence of risk factors for transmission between animal species was found in 21 papers, including proximity to infected animals, ingestion of infected material and potential association with a species known to carry influenza virus. Only three publications were found which presented a statistical measure of an epidemiological risk factor for the transmission of influenza between animal species. This review has identified a significant gap in knowledge regarding epidemiological risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses between animal species.
KeywordsInfluenza Avian influenza Zoonosis Epidemiology Risk factor Transmission
This work was conducted within the framework of the FLURISK project, supported by the European Food Safety Authority. The sole responsibility of this review lies with the authors and the European Food Safety Authority shall not be considered responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.
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