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EcoHealth

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 342–360 | Cite as

Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming Species Barriers

  • Kate A. Harris
  • Gudrun S. Freidl
  • Olga S. Munoz
  • Sophie von Dobschuetz
  • Marco De Nardi
  • Barbara Wieland
  • Marion P. G. Koopmans
  • Katharina D. C. Stärk
  • Kristien van Reeth
  • Gwen Dauphin
  • Adam Meijer
  • Erwin de Bruin
  • Ilaria Capua
  • Andy A. Hill
  • Rowena Kosmider
  • Jill Banks
  • Kim Stevens
  • Sylvie van der Werf
  • Vincent Enouf
  • Karen van der Meulen
  • Ian H. Brown
  • Dennis J. Alexander
  • Andrew C. BreedEmail author
  • the FLURISK Consortium
Review

Abstract

Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus. Circumstantial or observational evidence of risk factors for transmission between animal species was found in 21 papers, including proximity to infected animals, ingestion of infected material and potential association with a species known to carry influenza virus. Only three publications were found which presented a statistical measure of an epidemiological risk factor for the transmission of influenza between animal species. This review has identified a significant gap in knowledge regarding epidemiological risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses between animal species.

Keywords

Influenza Avian influenza Zoonosis Epidemiology Risk factor Transmission 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was conducted within the framework of the FLURISK project, supported by the European Food Safety Authority. The sole responsibility of this review lies with the authors and the European Food Safety Authority shall not be considered responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.

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Copyright information

© EcoHealth Alliance 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate A. Harris
    • 1
  • Gudrun S. Freidl
    • 2
    • 3
  • Olga S. Munoz
    • 4
    • 11
  • Sophie von Dobschuetz
    • 5
    • 9
  • Marco De Nardi
    • 4
    • 6
  • Barbara Wieland
    • 7
  • Marion P. G. Koopmans
    • 2
    • 3
  • Katharina D. C. Stärk
    • 5
  • Kristien van Reeth
    • 8
  • Gwen Dauphin
    • 9
  • Adam Meijer
    • 2
  • Erwin de Bruin
    • 2
  • Ilaria Capua
    • 4
    • 11
  • Andy A. Hill
    • 1
    • 5
    • 12
  • Rowena Kosmider
    • 1
  • Jill Banks
    • 1
  • Kim Stevens
    • 5
  • Sylvie van der Werf
    • 10
  • Vincent Enouf
    • 10
  • Karen van der Meulen
    • 8
  • Ian H. Brown
    • 1
  • Dennis J. Alexander
    • 1
  • Andrew C. Breed
    • 1
    • 13
    Email author
  • the FLURISK Consortium
  1. 1.Animal and Plant Health Agency-Weybridge (APHA)SurreyUK
  2. 2.Centre for Infectious Disease Research, Diagnostics and Screening (IDS)National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of ViroscienceErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.OIE/FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza, OIE Collaborating Centre for Diseases at the Human–Animal InterfaceIstituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle VenezieLegnaroItaly
  5. 5.Royal Veterinary College (RVC)LondonUK
  6. 6.SAFOSO AGLiebefeldSwitzerland
  7. 7.International Livestock Research Institute ILRIAddis AbabaEthiopia
  8. 8.Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  9. 9.Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)RomeItaly
  10. 10.Institut PasteurParisFrance
  11. 11.One Health Center of Excellence, Emerging Pathogens Institute and Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences-Department of Animal SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  12. 12.BAE SystemsFarnboroughUK
  13. 13.Epidemiology and One Health Section, Department of Water ResourcesCanberraAustralia

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