, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 244–258 | Cite as

Biosecurity Conditions in Small Commercial Chicken Farms, Bangladesh 2011–2012

  • N. A. Rimi
  • R. Sultana
  • M. Muhsina
  • B. Uddin
  • N. Haider
  • N. Nahar
  • N. Zeidner
  • K. Sturm-Ramirez
  • S. P. Luby
Original Contribution


In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers’ perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011–2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions with poultry farmers in 16 farms and in-depth interviews with seven local feed vendors from two districts. None of the farms were completely segregated from people, backyard poultry, other animals, households, other poultry farms or large trees. Wild birds and rodents accessed the farms for poultry feed. Farmers usually did not allow the buyers to bring egg trays inside their sheds. Spraying disinfectant in the shed and removing feces were the only regular cleaning and disinfection activities observed. All farmers sold or used untreated feces as fish feed or fertilizer. Farmers were more concerned about Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease than about avian influenza. Farmers’ understanding about biosecurity and avian influenza was influenced by local vendors. While we seldom observed flock segregation, some farmers used measures that involved additional cost or effort to protect their flocks. These farmers could be motivated by interventions to protect their investment from diseases they consider harmful. Future interventions could explore the feasibility and effectiveness of low-cost alternative biosecurity measures.


biosecurity small commercial poultry farm avian influenza perception qualitative Bangladesh 



This research was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA (, under the Cooperative Agreement Grant 5U01CI000628-02. icddr,b acknowledges with gratitude the commitment of CDC to this research effort. The paper was reviewed and cleared for publication by CDC staff who are not co-authors; the funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC. icddr,b is grateful to the Governments of Bangladesh, Canada, Sweden and the UK for providing financial support. We are grateful to our study participants for their time and invaluable information. We thank Meghan L. Scott and Diana DiazGranados for reviewing and editing this manuscript. We also thank Md. Kamal Hossain, Mahbub-ul-Alam and Md. Habibullah Fahad for preparing the map.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and rights statement

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study protocol was approved by icddr,b’s Ethical Review Committee (Federalwide Assurance # 00001468, Human Welfare Assurance # 00001822). Informed written consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10393_2017_1224_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
S1 Table: Guideline for in-depth interview with the farmers and local sellers of Gazipur and Tangail study sites, 2011-12 (DOCX 17 kb)
10393_2017_1224_MOESM2_ESM.docx (24 kb)
S2 Table. Biosecurity guideline for the commercial poultry industry in Bangladesh (DOCX 23 kb)
10393_2017_1224_MOESM3_ESM.docx (17 kb)
S3 Table: Cleaning and disinfection practices (reported or observed) in the farms of Gazipur and Tangail study sites, 2011-12 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© International Association for Ecology and Health 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. A. Rimi
    • 1
  • R. Sultana
    • 1
  • M. Muhsina
    • 1
  • B. Uddin
    • 1
  • N. Haider
    • 1
    • 2
  • N. Nahar
    • 1
  • N. Zeidner
    • 1
    • 3
  • K. Sturm-Ramirez
    • 1
    • 3
  • S. P. Luby
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Program on Emerging Infections, Infectious Diseases Divisionicddr,bDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Technical University of DenmarkCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)AtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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