Bringing Back a Healthy Buzz? Invertebrate Parasites and Reintroductions: A Case Study in Bumblebees
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Reintroductions can play a key role in the conservation of endangered species. Parasites may impact reintroductions, both positively and negatively, but few case studies of how to manage parasites during reintroductions exist. Bumblebees are in decline at regional and global scales, and reintroductions can be used to re-establish extinct local populations. Here we report on how the risks associated with parasites are being managed in an ongoing reintroduction of the short-haired bumblebee, Bombus subterraneus, to the UK. Disease risk analysis was conducted and disease risk management plans constructed to design a capture-quarantine-release system that minimised the impacts on both the bumblebees and on their natural parasites. Given that bumblebee parasites are (i) generalists, (ii) geographically ubiquitous, and (iii) show evidence of local adaptation, the disease risk management plan was designed to limit the co-introduction of parasites from the source population in Sweden to the destination site in the UK. Results suggest that this process at best eliminated, or at least severely curtailed the co-introduction of parasites, and ongoing updates of the plan enabled minimization of impacts on natural host-parasite dynamics in the Swedish source population. This study suggests that methods designed for reintroductions of vertebrate species can be successfully applied to invertebrates. Future reintroductions of invertebrates where the parasite fauna is less well known should take advantage of next-generation barcoding and multiple survey years prior to the start of reintroductions, to develop comprehensive disease risk management plans.
Keywordsreintroductions parasites conservation disease risk management disease risk analysis
The manuscript was conceived by MJFB, AWS and NG. NG collected the queens. MJFB and CMJ conducted the parasite screening. MJFB wrote the first draft of the manuscript. NG, AWS, RV-H, CMJ, GM edited and contributed to the writing of the manuscript. We thank 2 anonymous reviewers for their comments that greatly improved the clarity of the manuscript. Further thanks to Dr David Sheppard, and Barry Donovan for information on the plans for the short-haired bumblebee re-introduction; Denis Anderson Principal Research Scientist CSIRO Entomology, Canberra Australia and Mike Brown, Head at the National Bee Unit, FERA, England for information regarding quarantine screening of bees and Dr Giles Budge from FERA, England regarding specific information on viral diseases of Bombus sp. Dr. Bill Hughes very generously shared unpublished data on viruses in UK bumblebees. Prof Ingemar Fries and Joachim Rodrigues deMiranda are also to be thanked for their invaluable contributions in regard to parasites and viruses studied in Swedish bumblebees. Alun Chave also contributed invaluably to this report through a literature review and a first draft of the disease risk analysis. We would also like to thank all the short-haired bumblebee project volunteers who have helped collect queens from Sweden, and Jordan Connor for preparing Figure 1.
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