EcoHealth

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 303–309

Environmental Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa), France

  • Marina Beral
  • Sophie Rossi
  • Dominique Aubert
  • Patrick Gasqui
  • Marie-Eve Terrier
  • Francois Klein
  • Isabelle Villena
  • David Abrial
  • Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont
  • Céline Richomme
  • Jean Hars
  • Elsa Jourdain
Short Communication

Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite infecting humans and animals. Wild boars Sus scrofa are a potential source of human infection and an appropriate biological model for analyzing T. gondii dynamics in the environment. Here, we aimed to identify environmental factors explaining the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in French wild boar populations. Considering 938 individuals sampled from 377 ‘communes’, overall seroprevalence was 23% (95% confidence interval: [22–24]). Using a Poisson regression, we found that the number of seropositive wild boars detected per ‘commune’ was positively associated with the presence of European wildcats (Felis silvestris) and moderate winter temperatures.

Keywords

risk factor Toxoplasma gondii Sus scrofa seroprevalence environment France zoonosis wildlife modified agglutination test 

References

  1. Afonso E, Thulliez P, and Gilot-Fromont E (2010) Local meteorological conditions, dynamics of seroconversion to Toxoplasma gondii in cats (Felis catus) and oocyst burden in a rural environment. Epidemiology and Infection 138:1105-1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AFSSA (2005) Rapport du groupe de travail «Toxoplasma gondii», Toxoplasmose : état des connaissances et évaluation du risque lié à l’alimentation. Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaires des Aliments, Maisons Alfort, France. http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/rapports-publics/064000311/index.shtml. Accessed January 26, 2012
  3. Almeria S CC, Pagés A, Gauss C, Dubey JP (2004) Factors affecting the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from Spain. Veterinary Parasitology 13:265:270Google Scholar
  4. Bártová E, Sedlák K, and Literák I (2006) Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in wild boars in the Czech Republic. Veterinary Parasitology 142:150-153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bengis R, Leighton F, Fisher J, Artois M, Morner T, and Tate C (2004) The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Revue Scientifique et Technique de l’Office International des Epizooties 23:497-511Google Scholar
  6. Berger F, Goulet V, Le Strat Y, and Desenclos J-C (2008) Toxoplasmose chez les femmes enceintes en France : évolution de la séroprévalence et de l’incidence et facteurs associés, 1995-2003. Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire 14/15:117-121Google Scholar
  7. Bultel C, Derouin F (2006) Nouvelles données sur le risque alimentaire lié à Toxoplasma gondii. Bulletin Epidémiologique 22:1–4. http://www.bdsp.ehesp.fr/Base/354782/. Accessed January 26, 2012Google Scholar
  8. Diderrich V, New JC, Nobler GP, and Patton S (1996) Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-ranging wild hogs (Sus scrofa) from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and from sites in South Carolina. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 43:S122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dohoo I, Martin W, and Stryhn H (2009) Veterinary Epidemiologic Research, 2nd Edition. University of Prince Edward Island, Chalottetown, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  10. Dubey JP (1994) Toxoplasmosis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205:1593-1598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dubey JP, Rollor EA, Smith K, Kwok OCH, and Thulliez P (1997) Low seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in feral pigs from a remote island lacking cats. Journal of Parasitology 83:839-841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dubey JP, Saville WJA, Stanek JF, and Reed SM (2002). Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic cats from rural Ohio. The Journal of Parasitology 88:802-803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dumètre A, and Dardé ML (2003). How to detect Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental samples? FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27:651-661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fischer C, Gourdin H, and Obermann M (2004). Spatial behaviour of the wild boar in Geneva, Switzerland: testing methods and first results. Wild Boar Research 2002, Galemys 16: 149–156Google Scholar
  15. Fredebaugh S, Mateus-Pinilla N, McAllister M, Warner R, and Weng H (2011). Prevalence of antibody to Toxoplasma gondii in terrestrial wildlife in a natural area. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47:381-392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Frenkel JK, Ruiz A, and Chinchilla M (1975). Soil survival of toxoplasma oocysts in Kansas and Costa Rica. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 24:439-443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gauss C, Dubey J, Vidal D, Ruiz F, Vicente J, Marco I, Lavin S, Gortazar C, and Almeria S (2005). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from Spain. Veterinary Parasitology 131:151–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Halos L, Thébault A, Aubert D, Thomas M, Perret C, Geers R, Alliot A, Escotte-Binet S, Ajzenberg D, Dardé M-L, Durand B, Boireau P, and Villena I (2010). An innovative survey underlining the significant level of contamination by Toxoplasma gondii of ovine meat consumed in France. International Journal for Parasitology 40:193-200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Junglen S, Kurth A, Kuehl H, Quan P, Ellerbrok H, Pauli G, Nitsche A, Nunn C, Rich S, Lipkin W, Briese T, and Leedertz F (2009). Examining landscape factors influencing relative distribution of mosquito genera and frequency of virus infection. Ecohealth 6:239-249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keuling O, Stier N, and Roth M (2008). Annual and seasonal space use of different age classes of female wild boar Sus scrofa. L. European Journal of Wildlife Research 54:403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lloyd-Smith J, George D, Pepin K, Pitzer V, Pulliam J, Dobson A, Hudson P, and Grenfell B (2009). Epidemic dynamics at the human-animal interface. Science 326:1362-1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Richomme C, Afonso E, Tolon V, Ducrot C, Halos L, Alliot A, Perret C, Thomas M, Boireau P, and Gilot-Fromont E (2010). Seroprevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in a Mediterranean island. Epidemiology and Infection 138:1257-1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Richomme C, Aubert D, Gilot-Fromont E, Ajzenberg D, Mercier A, Ducrot C, Ferté H, Delorme D, and Villena I (2009). Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from wild boar (Sus scrofa) in France. Veterinary Parasitology 164:296-300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ross RD, Stec LA, Werner JC, Blumenkranz MS, Glazer L, and Williams GA (2001). Presumed acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in deer hunters. Retina 21:226-229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Say L, Devillard S, Léger F, Pontier D, Ruette S (2012) Distribution and spatial genetic structure of European wildcat in France. Animal Conservation 15:18-27CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association for Ecology and Health 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina Beral
    • 1
  • Sophie Rossi
    • 2
  • Dominique Aubert
    • 3
  • Patrick Gasqui
    • 1
  • Marie-Eve Terrier
    • 4
  • Francois Klein
    • 5
  • Isabelle Villena
    • 3
  • David Abrial
    • 1
  • Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont
    • 6
    • 7
  • Céline Richomme
    • 4
  • Jean Hars
    • 8
  • Elsa Jourdain
    • 1
  1. 1.INRA, UR346Saint-Genes-ChampanelleFrance
  2. 2.Direction des Etudes et de la RechercheOffice National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Unité Sanitaire de la FauneGapFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Parasitologie-MycologieUniversité de Reims Champagne-ArdenneReimsFrance
  4. 4.French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupationnal Health Safety (ANSES), Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, Technopole Agricole et VétérinaireMalzévilleFrance
  5. 5.Centre National d’Etude et de Recherche Appliquées sur les Cervidés-SangliersOffice National de la Chasse et de la Faune SauvageBar-le-DucFrance
  6. 6. Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Bâtiment Mendel, CNRS, UMR5558Université Lyon 1VilleurbanneFrance
  7. 7.VetAgro-Sup Campus VétérinaireMarcy l’EtoileFrance
  8. 8.Direction des Etudes et de la RechercheOffice National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Unité Sanitaire de la FauneGieresFrance

Personalised recommendations