, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 217–228 | Cite as

Impacts of Climate, Land Use, and Biological Invasion on the Ecology of Immature Aedes Mosquitoes: Implications for La Crosse Emergence

  • Paul T. LeisnhamEmail author
  • Steven A. Juliano


Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) cause many diseases worldwide and their transmission is likely to change with land use and climate changes. La Crosse virus (LACV) is historically transmitted by the native mosquito Aedes triseriatus (Say) in the upper Midwestern US, but the invasive congeners Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and A. japonicus (Theobald), which co-occur with A. triseriatus in water-holding containers, may be important accessory vectors in the Appalachian region where La Crosse encephalitis is an emerging disease. This review focuses on evidence for how climate, land use, and biological invasions may have direct abiotic and indirect community-level impacts on immature developmental stages (eggs and larvae) of Aedes mosquitoes. Because vector-borne diseases usually vary in space and time and are related to the ecology of the vector species, we propose that the ecology of its mosquito vectors, particularly at their immature stages, has played an important role in the emergence of La Crosse encephalitis in the Appalachian region and represents a model for investigating the effects of environmental changes on other vector-borne diseases. We summarize the health effects of LACV and associated socioeconomic costs that make it the most important native mosquito-borne disease in the US. We review of the transmission of LACV, and present evidence for the impacts of climate, land use, and biological invasions on Aedes mosquito communities. Finally, we discuss important questions about the ecology of LACV mosquito vectors that may improve our understanding of the impacts of environmental changes on LACV and other arboviruses.


Aedes albopictus Aedes triseriatus Culicidae disease ecology disease vectors interspecific competition predation invasion La Crosse encephalitis global change biology 



Development of this review was supported by a grant from the Maryland Agricultural Research Station to PTL, and by grants from NIAID (R01 AI-44793, ISU subaward, and R15 AI075306-01) to SAJ.


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Copyright information

© International Association for Ecology and Health 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and TechnologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.School of Biological Sciences, Behavior, Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics SectionIllinois State UniversityNormalUSA

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