, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 468–477 | Cite as

Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in Municipal and Natural Waters and Incidence of Cholera in Azerbaijan

  • Shair Gurbanov
  • Rashid Akhmadov
  • Gulnara Shamkhalova
  • Sevinj Akhmadova
  • Bradd J. Haley
  • Rita R. Colwell
  • Anwar HuqEmail author
Original Contribution


Cholera, a waterborne disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is an autochthonous member of the aquatic environment and predominantly reported from developing countries. Technical reports and proceedings were reviewed to determine the relationship between occurrence of V. cholerae in natural waters, including sources of municipal water, and cases of cholera in Azerbaijan. Water samples collected from different environmental sources from 1970 to 1998 were tested for V. cholerae and 0.73% (864/117,893) were positive. The results showed that in April of each year, when the air temperature rose by approximately 5°C, V. cholerae could be isolated. With each increase in air temperature, 6–8 weeks after, impact on cases of cholera was recorded. The incidence of cholera peaked when the air temperature reached >25°C during the month of September. It is concluded that a distinct seasonality in cholera incidence exists in Azerbaijan, with increased occurrence during warmer months.


cholera Vibrio cholerae Azerbaijan water 



This work was primarily supported by a grant funded by the Bio-Industry Initiative (BII) Grant No. 8008 of the U.S. Department of State and implemented by CRDF Global and in part supported by the grants from National Science Foundation Grant 0813066, NIH Grant 2RO1A1039129-11A2, and National Institutes of Health-Fogarty International Center Challenge Grant 1RC1TW008587-01.


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Copyright information

© International Association for Ecology and Health 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shair Gurbanov
    • 1
  • Rashid Akhmadov
    • 1
  • Gulnara Shamkhalova
    • 2
  • Sevinj Akhmadova
    • 1
  • Bradd J. Haley
    • 3
  • Rita R. Colwell
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Anwar Huq
    • 3
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Republican Anti-Plague StationBakuAzerbaijan
  2. 2.Raytheon Technical Services CompanyBakuAzerbaijan
  3. 3.Maryland Pathogen Research InstituteUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  4. 4.University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer StudiesUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  5. 5.Johns Hopkins University School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  6. 6.CosmosIDCollege ParkUSA
  7. 7.Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, School of Public HealthUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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