First Record of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infecting Four Frog Families from Peninsular Malaysia
- 362 Downloads
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infects amphibians on every continent where they occur and is linked to the decline of over 200 amphibian species worldwide. At present, only three published Bd surveys exist for mainland Asia, and Bd has been detected in South Korea alone. In this article, we report the first survey for Bd in Peninsular Malaysia. We swabbed 127 individuals from the six amphibian families that occur on Peninsular Malaysia, including two orders, 27 genera, and 47 species. We detected Bd on 10 out of 127 individuals from four of five states and five of 11 localities, placing the 95% confidence interval for overall prevalence at 4–14%. We detected no variation in Bd prevalence among regions, elevations, or taxonomic groups. The infection intensity ranged from 1 to 157,000 genome equivalents. The presence of Bd infections in native species without clinical signs of disease suggests that Bd may be endemic to the region. Alternately, Bd may have been introduced from non-native amphibians because of the substantial amphibian food trade in Peninsular Malaysia. Under both scenarios, management efforts should be implemented to limit the spread of non-native Bd and protect the tremendous amphibian diversity in Peninsular Malaysia.
Keywordschytridiomycosis Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis amphibian pathogen Peninsular Malaysia
A research pass (40/200/19 SJ.1105) was issued to LLG by the Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister’s Department. This research was supported partially by a grant from the College of Arts and Sciences, La Sierra University to L.L.G., a USM Grant to S.A., and a travel grant to A.E.S. from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program.
- Berger L, Speare R, Daszak P, Green DE, Cunningham AA, Goggin CL, Slocombe R, Ragan MA, Hyatt AD, McDonald KR, Hines HB, Lips KR, Marantelli G, Parkes H (1998) Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95:9031–9036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chan KO,Wood PL, Grismer JL (2008) Lithobates catesbeianus, geographical distribution. Herpetological Review 39:479–485.Google Scholar
- Green DE, Dodd K (2007) Presence of amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and other amphibian pathogens at warm-water fish hatcheries in southeastern North America. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 2:43–47.Google Scholar
- Hyatt AD, Boyle DG, Olsen V, Boyle DB, Berger L, Obendorf D, Dalton A, Kriger K, Hero M, Hines H, Phillott R, Campbell R, Marantelli G, Gleason F, Colling A (2007) Diagnostic assays and sampling protocols for the detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73:175–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- John E (2005) Stop Releasing Exotic Animals, Urges FRIM. News Strait Times 25 May 2005Google Scholar
- Malaysian Meterological Department. Monthly Weather Bulletin, March 2010. Malaysia Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2 March, 2011. www.met.gov.my/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=847&Itemid=1586&lang=english
- McLeod DS, Sheridan JA, Jiraungkoorskul W, Khonsue W (2008) A survey for the chytrid fungus in Thai amphibians. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 56:199–204.Google Scholar
- Pounds AJ, Bustamante MR, Coloma LA, Consuegra JA, Fogden MPL, Foster PN, La Marca E, Masters KL, Merino-Viteri A, Puschendorf R, Ron SR, Sanchez-Azofeifa GA, Still CJ, Young BE (2006) Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439:161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rowley JJL, Chan SKF, Tang WS, Speare R, Skerratt LF, Alford RA, Cheung KS, Ho CY, Campbell R (2007) Survey for the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hong Kong in native amphibians and in the international amphibian trade. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 78:87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang H, Baek H, Speare R, Webb R, Park S, Kim T, Lasater KC, Shin S, Son S, Park J, Min M, Kim Y, Na K, Lee H, Park S (2009) First detection of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-ranging populations of amphibians on mainland Asia: survey in South Korea. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 86:9–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar